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Gram Stain

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Also known as: Gram's Stain
Formal name: Gram Stain

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NOTE: This article is based on research that utilizes the sources cited here as well as the collective experience of the Lab Tests Online Editorial Review Board. This article is periodically reviewed by the Editorial Board and may be updated as a result of the review. Any new sources cited will be added to the list and distinguished from the original sources used.

Sources Used in Current Review

(© 2012) Cavanaugh D, Keen M, American Society for Microbiology. The Gram Stain: An Animated Approach. Available online at http://www.microbelibrary.org/library/gram-stain/3018-the-gram-stain-an-animated-approach through http://www.microbelibrary.org. Accessed September 2013.

(Updated July 22, 2103) Smith A, Hussey M, American Society for Microbiology. Gram Stain Protocols. Available online at http://www.microbelibrary.org/component/resource/gram-stain/2886-gram-stain-protocols through http://www.microbelibrary.org. Accessed September 2013.

(Updated February 21, 2013) Patolia S, et al. Gram Stain. Medscape Reference article. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/2093371-overview through http://emedicine.medscape.com. Accessed September 2013.

Uehara Y, et al. Impact of Reporting Gram Stain Results from Blood Culture Bottles on the Selection of Antimicrobial Agents. Am J Clin Pathol 2009 132:18-25. Available online at http://ajcp.ascpjournals.org/content/132/1/18.full?sid=b349478c-9108-4e9c-b957-5547886cb78c through http://ajcp.ascpjournals.org. Accessed September 2013.

Munson E, et al. Mechanisms To Assess Gram Stain Interpretation Proficiency of Technologists at Satellite Laboratories. J. Clin. Microbiol. November 2007 vol. 45 no. 11 3754-3758. Available online at http://jcm.asm.org/content/45/11/3754.long through http://jcm.asm.org. Accessed September 2013.

Forbes, B. et. al. (© 2007). Bailey & Scott's Diagnostic Microbiology, 12th Edition: Mosby Elsevier Press, St. Louis, MO. Pp 80-83.

Sources Used in Previous Reviews

Physician's Office Laboratory Microscopy Atlas, 3rd ed, 2007. Henderson & Murray. American Academy for Family Physicians Proficiency Testing.

Pagana, K. D. & Pagana, T. J. (© 2007). Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 8th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO. Pp 694, 707, 714, 883-884.

Wu, A. (© 2006). Tietz Clinical Guide to Laboratory Tests, 4th Edition: Saunders Elsevier, St. Louis, MO. Pp 1564-1565.

Forbes, B. et. al. (© 2007). Bailey & Scott's Diagnostic Microbiology, 12th Edition: Mosby Elsevier Press, St. Louis, MO. Pp 80-83.

Vorvick, L. (Updated 2009 August 9). Endocervical gram stain. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003753.htm. Accessed February 2010.

Yuki Uehara, Y. et. al. (2009 September 18). Impact of Reporting Gram Stain Results from Blood Culture Bottles on the Selection of Antimicrobial Agents. Medscape Today from American Journal of Clinical Pathology [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/708594 through http://www.medscape.com. Accessed February 2010.

Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods. 21st ed. McPherson R, Pincus M, eds. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier: 2007, Pp 1016-1017.