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NOTE: This article is based on research that utilizes the sources cited here as well as the collective experience of the Lab Tests Online Editorial Review Board. This article is periodically reviewed by the Editorial Board and may be updated as a result of the review. Any new sources cited will be added to the list and distinguished from the original sources used. To access online sources, copy and paste the URL into your browser.
Sources Used in Current Review
Devkota, B. (2014 January 16 Updated). HDL Cholesterol. Medscape Drugs & Diseases. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/2087757-overview#showall. Accessed on 5/01/16.
Singh, V. (2013 June 19 Updated). Low HDL Cholesterol. Medscape Drugs & Diseases. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/127943-overview. Accessed on 5/01/16.
Singh, V. (2014 December 18 Updated). High HDL Cholesterol. Medscape Drugs & Diseases. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/121187-overview. Accessed on 5/01/16.
(© 1995– 2016). Cholesterol, HDL, Serum. Mayo Clinic Mayo Medical Laboratories. Available online at http://www.mayomedicallaboratories.com/test-catalog/Clinical+and+Interpretive/8429. Accessed on 5/01/16.
(2016 March 28 Updated). About Cholesterol. American Heart Association. Available online at http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/Cholesterol/AboutCholesterol/About-Cholesterol_UCM_001220_Article.jsp#.Vy9WX3q9b5M. Accessed on 5/01/16.
Couzin-Frankel, J. (2016 March 10). Why high 'good cholesterol' can be bad news. Science v 352 (6286). Available online at http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2016/03/why-high-good-cholesterol-can-be-bad-news. Accessed on 5/01/16.
Stone NJ, Robinson JG, Lichtenstein AH, Bairey Merz CN, Blum CB, Eckel RH, Goldberg AC, Gordon D, Levy D, Lloyd-Jones DM, McBride P, Schwartz JS, Shero ST, Smith SC Jr, Watson K, Wilson PW; American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. 2013 ACC/AHA guideline on the treatment of blood cholesterol to reduce atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk in adults: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2014 Jul 1;63(25 Pt B):2889-934.
Lloyd-Jones DM, Morris PB, Ballantyne CM, Birtcher KK, Daly Jr DD, DePalma SM, Minissian MB, Orringer CE, Smith SC. 2016 ACC expert consensus decision pathway on the role of non-statin therapies for LDL-cholesterol lowering in the management of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk: a report of the American College of Cardiology Task Force on Clinical Expert Consensus Documents. J Am Coll Cardiol 2016. Available as pdf at http://content.onlinejacc.org/article.aspx?articleID=2510936#tab1.
Sources Used in Previous Reviews
Thomas, Clayton L., Editor (1997). Taber's Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary. F.A. Davis Company, Philadelphia, PA [18th Edition].
Pagana, Kathleen D. & Pagana, Timothy J. (2001). Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 5th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO.
American Heart Association. "What are healthy levels of cholesterol?" Article available online at http://188.8.131.52/presenter.jhtml?identifier=183
National Heart, Lung, Blood Institute. National Cholesterol Education Program Guidelines, Cholesterol, ATP III. Pp 31-34. PDF available for download at http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/guidelines/cholesterol/atp3full.pdf. Accessed July 2008.
Pagana K, Pagana T. Mosby's Manual of Diagnostic and Laboratory Tests. 3rd Edition, St. Louis: Mosby Elsevier; 2006. pp 351-355.
MayoClinic.com. Cholesterol Levels, What numbers should you aim for? (June 21, 2008). Available online at http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/cholesterol-levels/CL00001. Accessed July 2008.
American Heart Association. What Your Cholesterol Level Means. (April 7, 2008). Previously available online at http://184.108.40.206/presenter.jhtml?identifier=183#HDL. Accessed July 2008.
Clarke, W. and Dufour, D. R., Editors (2006). Contemporary Practice in Clinical Chemistry, AACC Press, Washington, DC. Pp 252-253.
Ken-ichi Hirano, et al. Atherosclerotic Disease in Marked Hyperalphalipoproteinemia: Combined Reduction of Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein and Hepatic Triglyceride Lipase. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology. 1995;15:1849-1856. Available online at http://atvb.ahajournals.org/cgi/content/full/atvbaha;15/11/1849?eaf. Accessed May 2010.
MedWire News: Dangerous edge to very high HDL-C levels. J Am Coll Cardiol 2008; 51: 634-642. Available online at http://www.lipidsonline.org/news/article.cfm?aid=5936. Accessed May 2010.
Lia Tremblay (LifeWire). Are High HDL Levels the Answer to Cholesterol Problems? Why High HDL Levels May Not Be Good Enough. Available online at http://cholesterol.about.com/lw/Health-Medicine/Conditions-and-diseases/Is-Increasing-HDL-Levels-the-Answer-to-Cholesterol-Problems-.htm. Accessed May 2010.
Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III). Sep 2002. PDF available for download at http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/guidelines/cholesterol/atp3full.pdf. Accessed July 21, 2013.
(December 2011) Expert Panel on Integrated Guidelines for Cardiovascular Health and Risk Reduction in Children and Adolescents: Summary Report. Pediatrics. December 2011. Vol 128. Supplement 5. PDF available for download at http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/site/misc/2009-2107.pdf. Accessed July 21, 2013.
(©2012) American Heart Association. Cholesterol Levels. Available online at http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/Cholesterol/Cholesterol_UCM_001089_SubHomePage.jsp. Accessed July 21, 2013.
(November 2012) American Association of Family Physicians. High Cholesterol. Available online at http://familydoctor.org/familydoctor/en/diseases-conditions/high-cholesterol.html. Accessed July 19, 2013.
Voight, B.F. et al. Plasma HDL cholesterol and risk of myocardial infarction: a mendelian randomisation study. The Lancet. August 2012. Vol 380. Issue 9841. Available online at: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0140673612603122. Accessed July 2013.