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HIV Antibody and HIV Antigen (p24)

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Also known as: HIV Screening Tests; AIDS Test; AIDS Screen; HIV Serology; p24 Antigen
Formal name: HIV-1 and HIV-2 Antibody and Antigen Evaluation

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NOTE: This article is based on research that utilizes the sources cited here as well as the collective experience of the Lab Tests Online Editorial Review Board. This article is periodically reviewed by the Editorial Board and may be updated as a result of the review. Any new sources cited will be added to the list and distinguished from the original sources used. To access online sources, copy and paste the URL into your browser.

Sources Used in Current Review

Cennimo, D. (2014 March 26, Updated). HIV Testing Overview. Medscape Drugs & Diseases. [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/2061077-overview. Accessed Dec 2015.

Bennett, N. (2014 December 17, Updated). Laboratory Assays in HIV Infection. Medscape Drugs & Diseases. [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1995114-overview#showall. Accessed Dec 2015.

Branson, B. et. al. (2014 June 27). Laboratory testing for the diagnosis of HIV infection : updated recommendations. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Association of Public Health Laboratories from CDC Stacks. [On-line information]. Available online at http://stacks.cdc.gov/view/cdc/23447. Accessed Dec 2015.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.). (2014 June). New CDC recommendations for HIV testing in laboratories : a step-by-step account of the approach. CDC Stacks. [On-line information]. Available online at http://stacks.cdc.gov/view/cdc/23563. Accessed Dec 2015.

Bennett, N. and Gilroy, S. (2015 Dec 15, Updated). HIV Disease. Medscape Drugs & Diseases. [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/211316-overview. Accessed Dec 2015.

Rivera, D. and Frye, R. (2015June 24, Updated). Pediatric HIV Infection. Medscape Drugs & Diseases. [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/965086-overview. Accessed Dec 2015.

(Reviewed March 2015) Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in Pediatric HIV Infection, Diagnosis of HIV Infection in Infants and Children. AIDSinfo. Available at https://aidsinfo.nih.gov/guidelines/html/2/pediatric-arv-guidelines/55/diagnosis-of-hiv-infection-in-infants-and-children. Accessed January 2016.

(Updated November 2014) World Health Organization. HIV/AIDS Online Q and A. Available online at http://www.who.int/features/qa/71/en/. Accessed January 2016.

(September 2015) World Health Organization. World Health Organization Guideline on When to Start Antiretroviral Therapy and Pre-exposure Prophylaxis in HIV. Available online at http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/186275/1/9789241509565_eng.pdf?ua=1. Accessed January 2016.

(January 2016) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HIV/AIDs: Basics and Testing. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/. Accessed Jan 2016.

Sources Used in Previous Reviews

Thomas, Clayton L., Editor (1997). Taber's Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary. F.A. Davis Company, Philadelphia, PA [18th Edition].

Pagana, Kathleen D. & Pagana, Timothy J. (2001). Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 5th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO.

Janice K. Pinson MT, MBA. Molecular Business Strategies, Birmingham, MI.

Pagana, Kathleen D. & Pagana, Timothy J. (© 2007). Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 8th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO. Pp. 23-27.

Clarke, W. and Dufour, D. R., Editors (2006). Contemporary Practice in Clinical Chemistry, AACC Press, Washington, DC. Pp. 487-490.

Bennett, N. and Rose, F. (2008 October 22, Updated). HIV Disease. eMedicine [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.emedicine.com/med/TOPIC24.HTM. Accessed on 10/26/08.

Mayo Clinic Staff (2008 August 9). MayoClinic HIV/AIDS. MayoClinic.com [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/hiv-aids/DS00005. Accessed on 10/30/08.

(2005 November, Revised). Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Introduction. Merck Manual for Healthcare Professionals [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.merck.com/mmpe/sec14/ch192/ch192a.html?qt=HIV&alt=sh. Accessed on 10/30/08.

(2008 September, Reviewed). Human Immunodeficiency Virus – HIV. ARUP Consult [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.arupconsult.com/Topics/InfectiousDz/Viruses/HIV.html. Accessed on 10/30/08.

(2006 September 22). Revised Recommendations for HIV Testing of Adults, Adolescents, and Pregnant Women in Health-Care Settings. CDC MMWR 55(RR14); 1-17 [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/rr5514a1.htm. Accessed on 11/1/08.

(January 29, 2009) OraSure Technologies. Oral Fluid—Specimen Collection and Testing Procedures. P. 4. PDF available for download at http://www.orasure.com/uploaded/400.pdf. Accessed February 2009.

(© 1995-2012). Test ID: HIVE HIV-1/-2 Antibody Evaluation, Serum. Mayo Clinic Mayo Medical Laboratories [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.mayomedicallaboratories.com/test-catalog/Clinical+and+Interpretive/9333. Accessed February 2012.

Mayo Clinic staff (2012 January 6). HIV testing. MayoClinic.com [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/hiv-testing/MY00954/METHOD=print. Accessed February 2012.

Bennett, N.J. and Gilroy, S. (Updated 2011 November 9) HIV Disease. Medscape Reference [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/211316-overview. Accessed February 2012.

Bennett, N. (Updated 2011 July 14). Laboratory Assays in HIV Infection. Medscape Reference [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1995114-overview#showall. Accessed February 2012.

Frequently Asked Questions. CDC National HIV and STD Testing Resources [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.hivtest.org/faq.aspx. Accessed February 2012.

Keller, D. (2011 October 6). HIV Patients Treated Long-Term May Have False-Negative Tests. Medscape Medical News [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/751067. Accessed February 2012.

Delaney, K.P. et. al. Performance of an alternative laboratory-based algorithm for HIV diagnosis in a high-risk population. J Clin Virol (2011), doi:10.1016/j.jcv.2011.09.013.

Masciotra, S. et. al. Evaluation of an alternative HIV diagnostic algorithm using specimens from seroconversion panels and persons with established HIV infections. J Clin Virol (2011), doi:10.1016/j.jcv.2011.09.011.

Wesolowski, L. et. al. Performance of an alternative laboratory-based algorithm for diagnosis of HIV infection utilizing a third generation immunoassay, a rapid HIV-1/HIV-2 differentiation test and a DNA or RNA-based nucleic acid amplification test in persons with established HIV-1 infection and blood donors. J Clin Virol (2011), doi:1016/j.jcv.2011.09.026.

Pagana, K. D. & Pagana, T. J. (© 2011). Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 10th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO. Pp 544-547.

Clarke, W., Editor (© 2011). Contemporary Practice in Clinical Chemistry 2nd Edition: AACC Press, Washington, DC. Pp 609-612.

(September 26, 2006) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Revised Recommendations for HIV Testing of Adults, Adolescents, and Pregnant Women in Health-Care Setting. MMWR 55(RR14);1-17. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/rr5514a1.htm. Accessed MayFeb 2012.

Qaseem A, et al. Screening for HIV in Health Care Settings: A Guidance Statement From the American College of Physicians and HIV Medicine Association. Ann Int Med, January 20, 2009 vol. 150 no. 2 125-131. Available online at http://www.annals.org/content/150/2/125.long. Accessed April 2012.