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HIV Antiretroviral Drug Resistance Testing, Genotypic

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Also known as: Anti-retroviral Drug Resistance Testing; ARV Resistance Testing
Formal name: Human Immunodeficiency Virus Genotypic Resistance Testing

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NOTE: This article is based on research that utilizes the sources cited here as well as the collective experience of the Lab Tests Online Editorial Review Board. This article is periodically reviewed by the Editorial Board and may be updated as a result of the review. Any new sources cited will be added to the list and distinguished from the original sources used. To access online sources, copy and paste the URL into your browser.

Sources Used in Current Review

Bennett, N. (2014 December 17, Updated). Laboratory Assays in HIV Infection. Medscape Drugs & Diseases. [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1995114-overview#showall. Accessed March 2016.

DHHS Panel on Antiretroviral Guidelines for Adults and Adolescents. (2015 April 8, Updated). Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in HIV-1-Infected Adults and Adolescents, Laboratory Testing, Drug-Resistance Testing. AIDSinfo. [On-line information]. Available online at https://aidsinfo.nih.gov/guidelines/html/1/adult-and-adolescent-arv-guidelines/6/drug-resistance-testing. Accessed March 2016.

Reimer, L. and Slev, P. (2015 May, Updated). Human Immunodeficiency Virus – HIV. ARUP Consult. [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.arupconsult.com/Topics/HIV.html?client_ID=LTD. Accessed March 2016.

Rathbun, R. et. al. (2015 July 20, Updated). Antiretroviral Therapy for HIV Infection. Medscape Drugs & Diseases. [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1533218-overview#showall. Accessed March 2016.

(2014 February 4, Reviewed). HIV Resistance Testing, Fact Sheet 126. AIDS InfoNet. [On-line information]. Available online at http://aidsinfonet.org/fact_sheets/view/126?lang=eng. Accessed March 2016.

(© 1995–2016). HIV-1 Genotypic Protease and Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor Drug Resistance, Plasma. Mayo Clinic Mayo Medical Laboratories [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.mayomedicallaboratories.com/test-catalog/Clinical+and+Interpretive/37216. Accessed March 2016.

Cennimo, D. (2015 Sep 1, Updated). Antiretroviral Therapy in Adolescents and Young Adults. Medscape Drugs & Diseases. [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/2041764-overview. Accessed March 2016.

Sources Used in Previous Reviews

Thomas, Clayton L., Editor (1997). Taber's Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary. F.A. Davis Company, Philadelphia, PA [18th Edition].

Pagana, Kathleen D. & Pagana, Timothy J. (2001). Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 5th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO.

Janice K. Pinson MT, MBA. Molecular Business Strategies, Birmingham, MI.

(Revised May 17, 2008) AIDS InfoNet. HIV resistance testing. Available online at http://www.aidsinfonet.org/fact_sheets/view/126. Accessed February 2009.

Clarke, W. and Dufour, D. R., Editors (2006). Contemporary Practice in Clinical Chemistry, AACC Press, Washington, DC. P. 490.

(Oct. 30, 2008) Spacek lL. Johns Hopkins HIV guide, Resistance Testing: Genotype. Available online at http://www.hopkins-hivguide.org/management/laboratory_testing/resistance_testing__genotype.html. Accessed February 2009.

(Updated February 19, 2009) National Institute for Allergy and Infectious Diseases. Treatment of HIV Infections. Available online at http://www3.niaid.nih.gov/NR/exeres/A01539FA-7571-48C4-8A76-C526D5F7EFE9.htm. Accessed February 2009.

(Updated November 3, 2008) AIDSinfo. Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in HIV-1-Infected Adults and Adolescents. Pp. 9-12. PDF available for download at http://aidsinfo.nih.gov/contentfiles/AdultandAdolescentGL.pdf. Accessed February 2009.

(Update December 2008) International AIDS Society-USA. Update of the Drug Resistance Mutations in HIV-1: December 2008. Available online at http://www.iasusa.org/resistance_mutations/. Accessed February 2009.

(2011 January). Resistance Testing. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Health Resources and Services Administration HIV/AIDS Bureau, Guide for HIV/AIDS Clinical Care [On-line information]. Available online at http://hab.hrsa.gov/deliverhivaidscare/clinicalguide11/cg-210_resistance_testing.html. Accessed February 2012.

(Reviewed 2011 December 19). HIV Resistance Testing. AIDS InfoNet [On-line information]. Available online at http://aidsinfonet.org/fact_sheets/view/126?lang=eng. Accessed February 2012.

Bennett, N.J. and Gilroy, S. (Updated 2011 November 9) HIV Disease. Medscape Reference [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/211316-overview. Accessed February 2012.

Bennett, N. (Updated 2011 July 14). Laboratory Assays in HIV Infection. Medscape Reference [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1995114-overview#showall. Accessed February 2012.

Hillyard, D. and Reimer, L. (Updated 2012 February). Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1, Antiretroviral Drug Resistance Testing - HIV Drug Resistance. ARUP Consult [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.arupconsult.com/Topics/HIVDrugResistance.html. Accessed February 2012.

(© 1995–2012). Test ID: GHIVR HIV-1 Genotypic Drug Resistance Mutation Analysis, with Reflex to Phenotypic Drug Resistance Prediction, Plasma. Mayo Clinic Mayo Medical Laboratories [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.mayomedicallaboratories.com/test-catalog/Overview/88782. Accessed February 2012.

Pagana, K. D. & Pagana, T. J. (© 2011). Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 10th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO. Pp 542-543.

Clarke, W., Editor (© 2011). Contemporary Practice in Clinical Chemistry 2nd Edition: AACC Press, Washington, DC. Pp 609-612.