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HLA Testing

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Also known as: Tissue Typing; HLA Typing; Histocompatibility Testing; HLA Crossmatching; HLA Antibody Testing/Screening/Identification
Formal name: Human Leukocyte Antigen; HLA Oligotyping; HLA Sequence-based Typing
Related tests: Blood Typing; HLA-B27; HLA-A, B, C, DR and DQ

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NOTE: This article is based on research that utilizes the sources cited here as well as the collective experience of the Lab Tests Online Editorial Review Board. This article is periodically reviewed by the Editorial Board and may be updated as a result of the review. Any new sources cited will be added to the list and distinguished from the original sources used.

Sources Used in Current Review

Greco, F. (Updated 2011 February 2). Histocompatibility antigen test. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003550.htm through http://www.nlm.nih.gov. Accessed November 2013.

(© 1996-2013). HLA Matching. Be the Match [On-line information]. Available online at http://bethematch.org/For-Patients-and-Families/Finding-a-donor/HLA-matching/ through http://bethematch.org. Accessed November 2013.

Malhotra, P. et. al. (Updated 2013 April 16) Immunology of Transplant Rejection. Medscape Reference [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/432209-overview#showall through http://emedicine.medscape.com. Accessed November 2013.

(© 1995-2013). HLA Class II Molecular Typing Disease Association. Mayo Clinic Mayo Medical Laboratories [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.mayomedicallaboratories.com/test-catalog/Overview/34990 through http://www.mayomedicallaboratories.com. Accessed November 2013.

(© 1995-2013). HLA Class I Molecular Typing Disease Association. Mayo Clinic Mayo Medical Laboratories [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.mayomedicallaboratories.com/test-catalog/Overview/89185 through http://www.mayomedicallaboratories.com. Accessed November 2013.

(© 2013). HLA Typing/Matching. UC Davis Transplant Center [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.ucdmc.ucdavis.edu/transplant/learnabout/learn_hla_type_match.html through http://www.ucdmc.ucdavis.edu. Accessed November 2013.

Pagana, K. D. & Pagana, T. J. (© 2011). Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 10th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO. Pp 561.

McPherson, R. and Pincus, M. (© 2011). Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods 22nd Edition: Elsevier Saunders, Philadelphia, PA. Pp 946-947.

Sources Used in Previous Reviews

(Reviewed 2009 February). HLA gene family. Genetics Home Reference [On-line information]. Available online at http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/geneFamily=hla through http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov. Accessed November 2009.

Malhotra, P. et. al. (Updated 2009 July 28). Immunology of Transplant Rejection [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/432209-overview through http://emedicine.medscape.com. Accessed November 2009.

Delves, P. (Revised 2008 September). Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) System. Merck Manual for Healthcare Professionals [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.merck.com/mmpe/sec13/ch163/ch163c.html#sec13-ch163-ch163c-70 through http://www.merck.com. Accessed November 2009.

Cassinotti, A. et. al. (© 2009). HLA and Autoimmune Digestive Disease: A Clinically Oriented Review for Gastroenterologists. Am J Gastroenterol 2009; 104:195–217 [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nature.com/ajg/journal/v104/n1/full/ajg200810a.html through http://www.nature.com. Accessed November 2009.

Hahn, A. ( © 2008). About Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics (ASHI) [On-line information]. PDF available for download at http://www.ashi-hla.org/docs/news/ASHI_Science_fact_sheet_Web.pdf through http://www.ashi-hla.org. Accessed November 2009.

Greco, F. (Updated 2009 January 1). Histocompatibility antigen test. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003550.htm. Accessed November 2009.

Murphey, C. and Forsthuber, T. (2008 July 07). Trends in HLA Antibody Screening and Identification and Their Role in Transplantation. Medscape from Expert Review of Clinical Immunology [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/575925 through http://www.medscape.com. Accessed November 2009.

Kankonkar (2003 October). HLA – SYSTEM. Bombay Hospital Journal. [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.bhj.org/journal/2003_4504_oct/hla_system_549.htm through http://www.bhj.org. Accessed November 2009.

Williams, T. (2001 August). Human Leukocyte Antigen Gene Polymorphism and the Histocompatibility Laboratory. Journal of Molecular Diagnostics, v3(3) [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1906958/?tool=pubmed through http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Accessed November 2009.

(Revised 2009 October). What Is a Blood and Marrow Stem Cell Transplant? National Heart Lung and Blood Institute [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/dci/Diseases/bmsct/bmsct_whatis.html through http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov. Accessed November 2009.

Smith, S. (2002 June 17). Immunologic Aspects of Organ Transplantation. Medscape from Organ Transplantation: Concepts, Issues, Practice, and Outcomes [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/436533_print through http://www.medscape.com. Accessed November 2009.

Waknine, Y. (2007 December 13). FDA Warns of Genetic Link to Carbamazepine Skin Reactions. Medscape Today [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/567436 through http://www.medscape.com. Accessed November 2009.

Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods. 21st ed. McPherson R, Pincus M, eds. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier: 2007 Pp 883-890.

Encyclopedia of Surgery: A Guide for Patients and Caregivers: Human Leukocyte Antigen Test. Available online at http://www.surgeryencyclopedia.com/Fi-La/Human-Leukocyte-Antigen-Test.html through http://www.surgeryencyclopedia.com. Accessed February 2010.

(June 2, 2004) University of Texas Medical Branch: The Kidney Transplant Process. Available online at http://www.utmb.edu/renaltx/process.htm through http://www.utmb.edu. Accessed February 2010.

Anne Halpin CHS MSc BSc MLT. Laboratory Scientist, Histocompatibility Laboratory, University of Alberta Hospital.