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Homocysteine

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Also known as: Plasma Total Homocysteine; Urine Homocysteine; Homocysteine Cardiac Risk
Formal name: Homocysteine

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NOTE: This article is based on research that utilizes the sources cited here as well as the collective experience of the Lab Tests Online Editorial Review Board. This article is periodically reviewed by the Editorial Board and may be updated as a result of the review. Any new sources cited will be added to the list and distinguished from the original sources used.

Sources Used in Current Review

Clarke R, Bennett DA, Parish S, Verhoef P, Dötsch-Klerk M, et al. (2012) Homocysteine and Coronary Heart Disease: Meta-analysis of MTHFR Case-Control Studies, Avoiding Publication Bias. PLoS Med 9(2): e1001177. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001177. Accessed February 2014.

Pagana, K. D. & Pagana, T. J. (© 2013). Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 11th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO. Pp 537-538.

(Updated Feburary 2012). Homocystinuria. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001199.htm through http://www.nlm.nih.gov/. Accessed February 2014.

(Updated 2010 July). Coronary Artery Disease | High Homocysteine Level: How It Affects Your Blood Vessels. Familydoctor.org. Available online at http://familydoctor.org/online/famdocen/home/articles/249.html through http://familydoctor.org. Accessed February 2014.

(Reviewed 2011 July). Homocystinuria. Genetics Home Reference. Available online at http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition=homocystinuria through http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov. Accessed February 2014.

(Updated 20 January 2012). Homocysteine, Folic Acid and Cardiovascular Disease. American Heart Association. Available online through http://www.americanheart.org. Accessed February 2014.

Mandava P. et al. (Updated 2013 June 20). Homocystinuria/Homocysteinemia. Medscape Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1952251-overview#a30 through through http://emedicine.medscape.com. Accessed February 2014.

Baloghova, J. et. al. (Upated 2013 July 24). Dermetologic Manifestations of Homocystinuria. Medscape. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1115062-overview through http://emedicine.medscape.com. Accessed February 2014.

(Updated January 6, 2013) National Newborn Screening and Genetics Resource Center. National Newborn Screening Status Report. Available online at http://genes-r-us.uthscsa.edu/sites/genes-r-us/files/nbsdisorders.pdf through http://genes-r-us.uthscsa.edu. Accessed February 2014.

(Updated May 26, 2013) The Screening, Technology And Research in Genetics (STAR-G) Project, Homocystinuria Factsheet. Available online at http://www.newbornscreening.info/Parents/aminoaciddisorders/CBS.html through http://www.newbornscreening.info. Accessed February 2014.

Sources Used in Previous Review

Thomas, Clayton L., Editor (1997). Taber's Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary. F.A. Davis Company, Philadelphia, PA [18th Edition].

Pagana, Kathleen D. & Pagana, Timothy J. (2001). Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 5th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO. Pp 488-490.

Stewart. D. (2004 July 26, Updated). Homocystinuria. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001199.htm.

Picker, J. and Levy, H. (2005 August 15, Updated). Homocystinuria Caused by Cystathionine Beta-Synthase Deficiency. GeneReviews [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.genetests.org/query?dz=homocystinuria through http://www.genetests.org.

(2005 September 23) Homocystinuria. Genetics Home Reference, Homocystinuria [On-line information]. Available online at http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition=homocystinuria through http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov.

Genetic Fact Sheets for Parents, Amino Acid Disorders. Expanded Newborn Screening with Tandem Mass Spectrometry Financial, Ethical, Legal, and Social Issues [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.newbornscreening.info/Parents/aminoaciddisorders/CBS.html through http://www.newbornscreening.info.

(2005 May 02, Reviewed). Genetic Fact Sheets for Professionals, Amino Acid Disorders. Expanded Newborn Screening with Tandem Mass Spectrometry Financial, Ethical, Legal, and Social Issues [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.newbornscreening.info/Pro/aminoaciddisorders/CBS.html through http://www.newbornscreening.info.

Homocysteine May Trigger Strokes. JS Online. Available online at http://www.jsonline.com/alive/ap/feb01/ap-stroke-amino-ac021601.asp through http://www.jsonline.com.

Homocysteine: An emerging age-related cardiovascular risk factor. Geriatrics. April 1999.

Donald W. Jacobsen, PhD, FAHA. Director, Laboratory for Homocysteine Research, Department of Cell Biology, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH. (Fellow, American Heart Association; American Association for Clinical Chemistry member).

Pagana, K. D. & Pagana, T. J. (© 2007). Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 8th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO. Pp 541-543.

Clarke, W. and Dufour, D. R., Editors (© 2006). Contemporary Practice in Clinical Chemistry: AACC Press, Washington, DC. Pp 434-435.

Wu, A. (© 2006). Tietz Clinical Guide to Laboratory Tests, 4th Edition: Saunders Elsevier, St. Louis, MO. Pp 574-577.

What Is Homocysteine? American Heart Association [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.americanheart.org/presenter.jhtml?identifier=535 through http://www.americanheart.org. Accessed May 2009.

(Updated 2008 July). Familydoctor.org. [On-line information] Available online at http://familydoctor.org/online/famdocen/home/articles/249.html through http://familydoctor.org. Accessed May 2009.

(2008 January). Homocystinuria. Genetics Home Reference [On-line information]. Available online at http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition=homocystinuria through http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov. Accessed May 2009.

(© 2009). Homocysteine, Folic Acid and Cardiovascular Disease. American Heart Association [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.americanheart.org/presenter.jhtml?identifier=4677 through http://www.americanheart.org. Accessed May 2009.

Baloghova, J. et. al. (2006 December 6). Homocystinuria. emedicine [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1115062-overview through http://emedicine.medscap.com. Accessed May 2009.

(Updated 2008 December). Cardiovascular Disease (Non-traditional Risk Markers) - Risk Markers - CVD (Non-traditional). ARUP Consult [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.arupconsult.com/Topics/CardiacDz/CVDRiskMarkerNontrad.html through http://www.arupconsult.com. Accessed May 2009.

National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry. Laboratory Medicine Practice Guidelines: Emerging Biomarkers for Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease and Stroke (2009) Homocysteine and Cardiovascular Disease Risk. Pg. 51. PDF available for download at http://www.aacc.org/members/nacb/LMPG/OnlineGuide/PublishedGuidelines/risk/Documents/PublishedGuidelines.pdf through http://www.aacc.org.