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Legionella Testing

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Also known as: Legionella pneumophila; Legionnaires Disease Testing
Formal name: Legionella Antigen, urine; Legionella Culture; Legionella by PCR

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NOTE: This article is based on research that utilizes the sources cited here as well as the collective experience of the Lab Tests Online Editorial Review Board. This article is periodically reviewed by the Editorial Board and may be updated as a result of the review. Any new sources cited will be added to the list and distinguished from the original sources used. To access online sources, copy and paste the URL into your browser.

Sources Used in Current Review

World Health Organization. (2014, November). Legionellosis. Available online at http://who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs285/en/ through http://who.int. Accessed on 8/20/2015.

US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2013 February 5, Updated). Legionella (Legionnaires' Disease and Pontiac Fever): Fast Facts. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/legionella/fastfacts.html through http://www.cdc.gov. Accessed on 8/20/15.

US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2015 August 21, Updated). Legionella (Legionnaires' Disease and Pontiac Fever): Outbreaks. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/legionella/outbreaks.html through http://www.cdc.gov. Accessed on 8/22/15.

Rathore M, Alvarez A. (2015 May 7, Updated). Legionella Infection. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/965492-overview through http://emedicine.medscape.com. Accessed 8/20/2015.

Fields BS, Benson RF, Besser RE. Legionella and Legionnaires' Disease: 25 Years of Investigation. Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 2002; 15(3): 506–526.

US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2013 February 5, Updated). Legionella (Legionnaires' Disease and Pontiac Fever): Diagnosis. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/legionella/about/diagnosis.html through http://www.cdc.gov. Accessed on 8/20/15.

US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2013 February 5, Updated). Legionella (Legionnaires' Disease and Pontiac Fever): Diagnostic Testing. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/legionella/diagnostic-testing.html through http://www.cdc.gov. Accessed September 9, 2015.

US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2013 February 5, Updated). Legionella (Legionnaires' Disease and Pontiac Fever): Prevention. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/legionella/outbreaks.html through http://www.cdc.gov. Accessed on 8/22/15.

Mayo Clinic Staff. (2014 January 2, Updated). Legionnaires' Disease. Available online at http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/legionnaires-disease/basics/definition/con-20028867 through http://www.mayoclinic.org. Accessed on 8/20/15.

Sources Used in Previous Reviews

(Modified 2011 June 1). Patient Facts: Learn More about Legionnaires' disease. CDC Legionellosis Resource Site [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/legionella/patient_facts.htm through http://www.cdc.gov. Accessed April 2012.

Mayo Clinic Staff (2010 December 10). Legionnaires' disease. MayoClinic.com [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.mayoclinic.com/print/legionnaires-disease/DS00853/METHOD=print&DSECTION=all through http://www.mayoclinic.com. Accessed April 2012.

Rathore, M. and Alvarez, A. (Updated 2011 October 25). Legionella Infection. Medscape Reference [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/965492-overview through http://emedicine.medscape.com. Accessed April 2012.

Cunha, B. and Sullivan, L. (Updated 2011 November 15). Legionnaires Disease. Medscape Reference [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/220163-overview through http://emedicine.medscape.com. Accessed April 2012.

Fisher, M. and Hillyard, D. (Updated 2011 November). Legionella pneumophila. ARUP Consult [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.arupconsult.com/Topics/Legionellapneumophila.html through http://www.arupconsult.com. Accessed April 2012.

Vorvick, L. (Updated 2011 February 19). Legionnaire's disease. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000616.htm. Accessed April 2012.

Smeeks, F. (Updated 2011 March 31). Legionnaires Disease in Emergency Medicine. Medscape Reference [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/783656-overview through http://emedicine.medscape.com. Accessed April 2012.

Preidt, R. (2012 January 11). Outbreak of Legionnaires' Disease Traced to Hospital Fountain. MedlinePlus HealthDay [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_120694.html through http://www.nlm.nih.gov. Accessed April 2012.

(Updated 2011 June 1). Top 10 Things Every Clinician Needs to Know About Legionellosis. CDC Legionellosis Resource Site [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/legionella/top10.htm through http://www.cdc.gov. Accessed April 2012.

Hadjiliadis, D. (Updated 2010 September 15). Atypical pneumonia. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000079.htm through http://www.nlm.nih.gov. Accessed April 2012.

Dugdale, D. (Updated 2010 May 23). Sputum direct fluorescent antibody (DFA). MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003553.htm. Accessed April 2012.

Hicks, L. and Garrison, L. (Updated 2011 July 1). Legionellosis (Legionnaires' Disease & Pontiac Fever). CDC Travelers' Health, Chapter 3 Infectious Diseases Related To Travel [On-line information]. Available online at http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/yellowbook/2012/chapter-3-infectious-diseases-related-to-travel/legionellosis-legionnaires-disease-and-pontiac-fever.htm through http://wwwnc.cdc.gov. Accessed April 2012.

(Modified 2011 June 6). Travel-Associated Legionnaires' Disease For Health Departments: Common Q&As CDC Legionellosis Resource Site [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/legionella/faq.htm through http://www.cdc.gov. Accessed April 2012.

Bartram, J. et. al. Editors (© 2007). Legionella and the Prevention of Legionellosis World Health Organization [On-line information]. PDF available for download at http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/emerging/legionella.pdf through http://www.who.int. Accessed April 2012.

Pagana, K. D. & Pagana, T. J. (© 2011). Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 10th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO. Pp 616.

Forbes, B. et. al. (© 2007). Bailey & Scott's Diagnostic Microbiology, 12th Edition: Mosby Elsevier Press, St. Louis, MO. Pp 424-429.