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LDL Particle Testing (LDL-P)

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Also known as: LDL Subclasses; NMR Particle Test; LDL-P; sdLDL; LDL Subfractions; HDL Subclasses; HDL Subfractions; LDL Particle Size; LDL Particle Number; LDL Count; LDL Pattern
Formal name: Low-Density Lipoprotein Subfraction Profile

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NOTE: This article is based on research that utilizes the sources cited here as well as the collective experience of the Lab Tests Online Editorial Review Board. This article is periodically reviewed by the Editorial Board and may be updated as a result of the review. Any new sources cited will be added to the list and distinguished from the original sources used. To access online sources, copy and paste the URL into your browser.

Sources Used in Most Recent Review

2016 review performed by Rose Romeo, PhD, DABCC, FACB.

Yan Zhang, Sha Li, Rui-Xia Xu, Cheng-Gang Zhu, Yuan-Lin Guo, Na-Quiong Wu, Jing Sun and Jian-Jun Li. System Inflammatory Markers Are Closely Associated with Atherogenic Lipoprotein Subfractions in Patients Undergoing Coronary Angiography. Mediators of Inflammation (2015):2015 Article ID 235742 (9 pages). Available online at http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2015/235742/abs/. Accessed February 7, 2016.

Harold E. Bays, Peter H. Jones, W. Virgil Brown and Terry A. Jacobson. National Lipid Association Annual Summary of Clinical Lipidology 2015. Journal of Clinical Lipidology; 2014 (8) S1-S36. Available online at http://nlaresourcecenter.lipidjournal.com/Content/PDFs/Summary-Revised.pdf as. Accessed February 7, 2016.

Samia Mora, Michael P. Caulfield, Jay Wohlgemuth, Zhizong Chen, Robert Superko, Charles M. Rowland, Robert J. Glynn, Paul M. Ridker, Ronald M. Kraus. Atherogenic Lipoprotein Subfractions Determined by Ion Mobility and First Cardiovascular Events After Random Allocation to High Intensity Statin or Placebo. The Justification for the Use of Statins in Prevention: An Intervention Trial Evaluating Rosuvastatin (JUPITER) Trial. Circulation (2015); 132:2220-2229. Abstract available online at http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/132/23/2220.abstract. Accessed February 7, 2016.

Mark A. Sarzynshi, Jeffrey Burton, Tuomo Rankinen, Steven N. Blair, Timothy S. Church, Jean-Pierre Despres, James M. Hapberg, Rian Landers-Ramos, Arthur S. Leon, Catherine R. Mikus, D.C. Rao, Richard L. Selp, James S. Skinner, Cris A. Sientz, Paul D. Thompson, Kenneth R. Wilund, William E. Kraus, Claude Bouchard. The effects of exercise of the lipoprotein subclass profile: A meta-analysis of 10 interventions. Atherosclerosis (2015) 243: 364-372. Abstract available online at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26520888. Accessed February 7, 2016.

Paul T. Williams, Xue-Qiao Zhao, Santica M. Marcovina, James D. Otvos, B. Greg Brown, Ronald M. Krauss. Comparison of four methods of analysis of lipoprotein particle subfractions for their association with angiographic progression of coronary artery disease. Atherosclerosis (2015) 233: 713-720. Abstract available online at http://www.atherosclerosis-journal.com/article/S0021-9150(14)00060-4/abstract. Accessed February 7, 2016.

Heejung Shim, Daniel I. Chasman, Joshua D. Smith, Samia Mora, Paul M. Ridker, Deborah A. Nickerson, Ronald M. Krauss, Matthew Stephens.. A Multivariate Genome-Wide Association Analysis of 10 LDL Subfractions, and Their Response to Statin Treatment, in 1868 Caucasians. PLOS ONE 10(4):1-20. Available online at http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0120758. Accessed February 7, 2016.

Sources Used in Previous Reviews

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Pagana, Kathleen D. & Pagana, Timothy J. (2001). Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 5th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO.

Landray, M. et. al (2002 January 2). Abnormal low-density lipoprotein subfraction profile in patients with untreated hypertension. Association of Physicians Q J Med 2002; 95: 165-171. Available online at http://qjmed.oupjournals.org/cgi/content/full/95/3/165.

Bioletto, S. et. al. (2000 February). Acute hyperinsulinemia and very-low-density and low-density lipoprotein subfractions in obese subjects. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 71, No. 2, 443-449. Available online at http://www.ajcn.org/cgi/content/full/71/2/443.

(Winter 2004). The Fats of Life, 7 Articles. Lipoproteins and Vascular Diseases Division, AACC, Volume XVIII, Vol 1. PDF available for download at http://www.aacc.org/divisions/lipids/winter04.pdf.

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Warnick, G. and Cheung, M. (2000). Measurement and Clinical Significance of High-density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Subclasses. Chapter 15 (Handbook of Lipoprotein of Lipoprotein Testing, AACC Press). Available online at http://www.warnick.biz/dextransulfate/Chapter15.htm.

Muniz, N., et. al. (2000). A New Tool for the Automated Analysis of LDL Subfraction Patterns Generated by the Lipoprint™ LDL System. Paper presented at The Frontiers in Lipoprotein and Vascular Disease, St Louis, MO. PDF available for download at http://www.4qc.com/pdf/frontiers.pdf.

Pagana, Kathleen D. & Pagana, Timothy J. (© 2007). Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 8th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO. Pp 602-605.

Clarke, W. and Dufour, D. R., Editors (2006). Contemporary Practice in Clinical Chemistry, AACC Press, Washington, DC. 253-258.

Mudd, J. et. al. (2007 October 29). Beyond Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol -- Defining the Role of Low-Density Lipoprotein Heterogeneity in Coronary Artery Disease. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 50(18):1735-1741. Available online through http://www.medscape.com/. Accessed on 3/8/08.

Navab, M. et. al. (2006 October 20). Mechanisms of Disease: Proatherogenic HDL-An Evolving Field. Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab. 2006;2(9):504-511. Available online through http://www.medscape.com/. Accessed on 3/8/08.

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Otvos, J. et. al. (2011 March-April). Clinical Implications of Discordance Between LDL Cholesterol and LDL Particle Number. J Clin Lipidol. 2011 Mar–Apr; 5(2): 105–113. [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3070150/. Accessed September 2013.

Rosenson RS, and Underberg JA. (2013 July 28). Systematic Review: Evaluating the Effect of Lipid-Lowering Therapy on Lipoprotein and Lipid Values. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther. 2013 Jul 28. Abstract [Epub ahead of print] [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23893306. Accessed September 2013.

Cole, T. et. al. (2013 ). Association of Apolipoprotein B and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy–Derived LDL Particle Number with Outcomes in 25 Clinical Studies: Assessment by the AACC Lipoprotein and Vascular Diseases Division Working Group on Best Practices. Clinical Chemistry May 2013 vol. 59 no. 5 752-770 Abstract [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.clinchem.org/content/59/5/752.abstract. Accessed September 2013.

Master, S. and Rader, D. (2013 March 13). Beyond LDL Cholesterol in Assessing Cardiovascular Risk: apo B or LDL-P? Clinical Chemistry 2013; v. 59, p.723-725 Extract. [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.clinchem.org/content/59/5/723.extract. Accessed September 2013.

Sniderman, A. and Kwiterovich, PO. (2013 April). Update on the detection and treatment of atherogenic low-density lipoproteins. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes. 2013 Apr;20(2):140-7 Abstract. [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23422241. Accessed September 2013.

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Ghassab, R. et. al. (March 2010). Determination of Low Density Lipoprotein Particle Size by Polyacrylamide Gradient Gel Electrophoresis in Patients with Coronary Artery Stenosis. LabMedicine v 41 (3) [On-line information]. Available online at http://labmed.ascpjournals.org/content/41/3/164.full. Accessed September 2013.

Myers, G. Editor (© 2009). Emerging Biomarkers for Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease and Stroke. The National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry, Laboratory Medicine Practice Guidelines, Emerging Biomarkers for Primary Prevention [On-line information]. Available online through http://www.aacc.org. Accessed September 2013.

Pagana, K. D. & Pagana, T. J. (© 2011). Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 10th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO. Pp 622-625.

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