NOTE: This article is based on research that utilizes the sources cited here as well as the collective experience of the Lab Tests Online Editorial Review Board. This article is periodically reviewed by the Editorial Board and may be updated as a result of the review. Any new sources cited will be added to the list and distinguished from the original sources used. To access online sources, copy and paste the URL into your browser.
Sources Used in Current Review
C. Wijeratne and B. Draper. Reformulation of current recommendations for target serum lithium concentration according to clinical indication, age and physical comorbidity. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2011 Dec; 45(12):1026-32. Available online at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21961481 through http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Accessed July 17, 2013.
Serum lithium measurement. MUSC Health: Medical University of South Carolina. Available online at http://www.muschealth.com/lab/content.aspx?id=150195 through http://www.muschealth.com. Accessed July 17, 2013.
Lithium. Egton Medical Information Systems Limited. Available online at http://www.patient.co.uk/doctor/lithium through http://patient.info. Last reviewed 02/05/2013. Accessed July 17, 2013.
Label and Approval History. Food and Drug Administration. PDF available for download at http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2004/16860slr074,18152slr020_eskalith_lbl.pdf through http://www.accessdata.fda.gov. Issued 2004. Accessed July 17, 2013.
Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnostics. Burtis CA, Ashwood ER and Bruns DE, eds. 4th ed. St. Louis, Missouri: Elsevier Saunders; 2006 Pp 608-609.
Sources Used in Previous Reviews
Thomas, Clayton L., Editor (1997). Taber's Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary. F.A. Davis Company, Philadelphia, PA [18th Edition]. Pp 1121.
Spearing, M. Updated (2006 February 17,Updated). Bipolar Disorder. NIMH [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nimh.nih.gov/publicat/bipolar.cfm#bp6 through http://www.nimh.nih.gov.
Goldberg, J. and Citrome, L. (2005 February). Latest therapies for bipolar disorder, Looking beyond lithium. Postgraduate Medicine online v 117 (2) [On-line journal]. Available online at http://www.postgradmed.com/issues/2005/02_05/goldberg.htm through http://www.postgradmed.com.
Geddes, J. et. al. (2004 February). Long-Term Lithium Therapy for Bipolar Disorder: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Am J Psychiatry 161:217-222 [On-line journal]. Available online at http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/full/161/2/217 through http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org.
Newport, D. J. et. al. (2005 November). Lithium Placental Passage and Obstetrical Outcome: Implications for Clinical Management During Late Pregnancy. American Journal of Psychiatry 162:2162-2170 [on-line abstract]. Available online at http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/abstract/162/11/2162 through http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org.
Schapiro, N. (2005). Bipolar Disorders in Children and Adolescents. Medscape from J Pediatr Health Care. 2005; 19 (3): 131-141 [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/504584_1 through http://www.medscape.com.
Menon, L. (2005 August, Updated). Lithium. National Alliance for the Mentally Ill [On-line information]. Available online through http://www.nami.org.
Walling, A. (2005 January 1). Evidence-Based Guidelines for Bipolar Disorder Therapy. American Family Physician [On-line journal]. Available online at http://www.aafp.org/afp/20050101/tips/19.html through http://www.aafp.org.
Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnostics. Burtis CA, Ashwood ER and Bruns DE, eds. 4th ed. St. Louis, Missouri: Elsevier Saunders; 2006, Pp 1271-1272.
Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. 16th ed. Kasper D, Braunwald E, Fauci A, Hauser S, Longo D, Jameson JL, eds. McGraw-Hill, 2005 Pg 2557.
(Updated March 24, 2009) Lee D, Gupta M. Toxicity, Lithium from Medscape. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/815523-overview through http://emedicine.medscape.com. Accessed September 2009.
(January 15, 2009) MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia. Bipolar Disorder. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000926.htm. Accessed September 2009.
(January 4, 2009) Mayo Clinic. Bipolar Disorder. Available online at http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/bipolar-disorder/DS00356 through http://www.mayoclinic.com. Accessed September 2009.
National Alliance on Mental Illness. Medications, Lithium. Available online through http://www.nami.org. Accessed September 2009.
(Jan 14, 2009) Lloyd A. Netdoctor: Lithium. Available online at http://www.netdoctor.co.uk/diseases/depression/lithium_000290.htm through http://www.netdoctor.co.uk. Accessed September 2009.