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NOTE: This article is based on research that utilizes the sources cited here as well as the collective experience of the Lab Tests Online Editorial Review Board. This article is periodically reviewed by the Editorial Board and may be updated as a result of the review. Any new sources cited will be added to the list and distinguished from the original sources used. To access online sources, copy and paste the URL into your browser.
Sources Used in Current Review
Reviewer May 2015: Bridgit O. Crews, PhD, DABCC, Scientific Director, Northern California Kaiser Regional Laboratories.
National Kidney Foundation. KDOQITM Clinical Practice Guidelines and Clincal Practice Recommendations for Diabetes and Chronic Kidney Disease. Am J Kidney Dis 49:S1-S180, 2007 (suppl 2).
American Diabetes Association. Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes—2015. Diabetes Care 38:S1-S94, 2015 (suppl 1).
Mancia G, Fagard R, Narkiewicz K, et al. 2013 ESH/ESC guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension: the Task Force for the Management of Arterial Hypertension of the European Society of Hypertension (ESH) and of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). Eur Heart J 28:2159-219 (2013).
Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) CKD Work Group. KDIGO 2012 Clinical Practice Guideline for the Evaluation and Management of Chronic Kidney Disease. Kidney inter., Suppl. 2013; 3: 1-150.
Sources Used in Previous Reviews
Corbett, JV. Laboratory Tests & Diagnostic Procedures with Nursing Diagnoses, 4th ed. Stamford, Conn.: Appleton & Lang, 1996. Pp. 73-74.
Thomas, Clayton L., Editor (1997). Taber's Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary. F.A. Davis Company, Philadelphia, PA [18th Edition].
Pagana, Kathleen D. & Pagana, Timothy J. (2001). Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 5th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO.
Nuovo, J. (1999 June). Albumin-to-Creatinine Ratio for Detection of Microalbuminuria. American Family Physician, Tips from other Journals [On-line journal]. Available online at http://www.aafp.org/afp/990600ap/tips.html#31 through http://www.aafp.org.
Fitz, M. (1999 February 2). Spot Urine Albumin to Creatinine Ratio. Loyola University Chicago Stritch School of Medicine. [On-line information, Medicine 1]. Available online at http://www.meddean.luc.edu/Lumen/meded/MEDICINE/medclerk/renal13.htm through http://www.meddean.luc.edu.
Ehrmeyer, S. (2003 January). Using a creatinine ratio in urinalysis to improve the reliability of protein and albumin results. Medical Laboratory Observer, Features 35 (1) [On-line journal]. Available online at http://www.mlo-online.com/articles/mlo0103cliniss.htm through http://www.mlo-online.com.
Loghman-Adham, M. (1998 October 1). Evaluating Proteinuria in Children. American Family Physician [On-line journal]. Available online at http://www.aafp.org/afp/981001ap/loghman.html through http://www.aafp.org.
Virtual Hospital: University of Iowa Family Practice Handbook, 3rd Edition: Hematologic, Electrolyte, and Metabolic Disorders: Bibliography. Available online at http://www.vh.org/Providers/ClinRef/FPHandbook/Chapter05/Bibliography05.html through http://www.vh.org
ARUP Laboratory Guidebook. Available online at http://www.arpulab.com/guides/clt/ through http://www.arpulab.com. (Click on "microalbumin, urine")
American Diabetes Association: Community and Resources. Available online at http://www.diabetes.org.
National Kidney Foundation. Fact Sheet: Microalbuminuria In Diabetic Kidney Disease. Available online at http://www.kidney.org/news/newsroom/fs_new/microalbindbkd.cfm through http://www.kidney.org. Accessed December 2008.
MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia. Microalbuminuria test. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/MEDLINEPLUS/ency/article/003591.htm. Accessed December 2008.
US FDA. Diabetes Information, Glucose Meters & Diabetes Management. Available online at http://www.fda.gov/Diabetes/glucose.html#22 through http://www.fda.gov. Accessed December 2008.
American Diabetes Association. Clinical Practice Recommendations 2008. Diabetes Care. January 2008, Volume 31, Supplement 1. Available online at http://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/vol31/Supplement_1/ through http://care.diabetesjournals.org. Accessed December 2008.
Wang TJ, Gona P, Larson G, et al. Multiple biomarkers for the prediction of first major cardiovascular events and death. New England Journal of Medicine. 21 Dec 2006. 355;25:2631-2639.
High Levels Of Urinary Albumin In The Normal Range Predict Hypertension. ScienceDaily (June 25, 2008). Available online at http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/06/080625123002.htm through http://www.sciencedaily.com. Accessed December 2008.
Holly Kramer et al. Urine Albumin Excretion and Subclinical Cardiovascular Disease. Hypertension. 2005;46:38. Available online at http://hyper.ahajournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/46/1/38 through http://hyper.ahajournals.org. Accessed December 2008.
Lin, J. (Updated 2012 February 21) Microalbumin. Medscape Reference [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/2088184-overview#showall through http://emedicine.medscape.com. Accessed April 2012.
Khardori, R. (Updated 2012 April 4) Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Medscape Reference [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/117853-overview through http://emedicine.medscape.com. Accessed April 2012.
Mayo Clinic Staff (Updated 2010 July 31). Microalbumin test. Mayo Clinic [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.mayoclinic.com/print/microalbumin/MY00143/METHOD=print&DSECTION=all through http://www.mayoclinic.com. Accessed April 2012.
Durani, Y. (Reviewed 2012 March). Urine Test: Microalbumin-to-Creatinine Ratio. Nemours [On-line information]. Available online at http://kidshealth.org/parent/system/medical/test_mtc_ratio.html through http://kidshealth.org. Accessed April 2012.
Pagana, K. D. & Pagana, T. J. (© 2011). Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 10th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO. Pp 678-679.
Clarke, W., Editor (© 2011). Contemporary Practice in Clinical Chemistry 2nd Edition: AACC Press, Washington, DC. Pp 368.
(© 2012) American Diabetes Association. Kidney Disease. Available online at http://www.diabetes.org/living-with-diabetes/complications/kidney-disease-nephropathy.html through http://www.diabetes.org. Acccessed April 2012.
(© 2012) National Kidney Foundation. Microalbuminuria in Diabetic Kidney Disease. Available online at http://www.kidney.org/news/newsroom/fs_new/microalbindbkd.cfm through http://www.kidney.org. Accessed April 2012.
Greg Miller, Ph.D. Professor of Pathology. Director of Clinical Chemistry. Director of Pathology Information Systems. Virginia Commonwealth University.