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Methylmalonic Acid

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Also known as: MMA
Formal name: Methylmalonic Acid

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NOTE: This article is based on research that utilizes the sources cited here as well as the collective experience of the Lab Tests Online Editorial Review Board. This article is periodically reviewed by the Editorial Board and may be updated as a result of the review. Any new sources cited will be added to the list and distinguished from the original sources used. To access online sources, copy and paste the URL into your browser.

Sources Used in Current Review

2015 reviewer: Kristin Luckenbill, PhD, JD, DABCC, Clinical Chemist, Sanford Bismarck Laboratory.

Genome.gov. NIH National Human Genome Research Institute. Clinical and Basic Investigations of Methylmalonic Acidemia (MMA) and Related Disorders. Available online at http://www.genome.gov/19016900. Accessed September 2015.

Stabler, SP. Clinical Practice. Vitamin B12 Deficiency. N Engl J Med 2013; 368: 149-160.

Langan, RC and Zawistoski, KJ. Update on Vitamin B12 Deficiency. American Family Physician 2011; 83: 1425-1430.

Hunt, A. Vitamin B12 Deficiency. BMJ 2014. 349: 5226-5236 (Pubmed ID: 25189324).

Velente E, et al. Diagnostic Accuracy of Holotranscobalamin, Methylmalonic Acid, Serum Cobalamin, and Other Indicators of Tissue Vitamin B12 Status in the Elderly, Clinical Chemistry, June 2011 vol. 57 no. 6 856-863. Available online http://www.clinchem.org/content/57/6/856.full?sid=6adda730-c0e1-4006-ae9c-39c7b9ee27f9. Accessed September 2015.

Sources Used in Previous Reviews

Clarke, W. and Dufour, D. R., Editors (2006). Contemporary Practice in Clinical Chemistry, AACC Press, Washington, DC. Pp 406.

Wu, A. (2006). Tietz Clinical Guide to Laboratory Tests, Fourth Edition. Saunders Elsevier, St. Louis, Missouri. Pp 740-741.

Greco, F. (2007 October 15). Methylmalonic acid test. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003565.htm. Accessed on 2/17/08.

Hurd, R. (2007 April 26, Updated). Methylmalonic acidemia. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001162.htm. Accessed on 2/17/08.

(2008 January, Reviewed). Methylmalonic acidemia. Genetics Home Reference [On-line information]. Available online through http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov. Accessed on 2/17/08.

Grund, S. (2007 August 27). Pernicious anemia. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000569.htm. Accessed on 2/17/08.

Venditti, C. (2007 January 18, Revised). Methylmalonic acidemia. GeneReviews [On-line information]. Available online through http://www.genetests.org. Accessed on 2/24/08.

Thomas, Clayton L., Editor (1997). Tabers Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary. F.A. Davis Company, Philadelphia, PA [18th Edition].

Pagana, Kathleen D. & Pagana, Timothy J. (2001). Mosbys Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 5th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO.

Klee, G. (2000). Cobalamin and Folate Evaluation: Measurement of Methylmalonic Acid and Homocysteine vs Vitamin B12 and Folate. Clinical Chemistry. 46:1277-1283 [Abstract]. Available online at http://www.clinchem.org/cgi/content/abstract/46/8/1277.

Oh, R. and Brown, D. (2003 March 1). Vitamin B12 Deficiency. American Family Physician [On-line journal]. Available online at http://www.aafp.org/afp/20030301/979.html.

Elin, R. and Winter, W. (2001 January 18). Methylmalonic Acid, A Test Whose Time Has Come? Archives of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine Vol. 125, No. 6, pp. 824827. [On-line journal]. Available online through http://arpa.allenpress.com.

Hvas, A., et. al. (2001 June 25). Increased Plasma Methylmalonic Acid Level Does Not Predict Clinical Manifestations of Vitamin B12 Deficiency. Arch Intern Med vol 161.

Smith, D. (2000 October 1). Anemia in the Elderly. American Family Physician [On-line journal]. Available online at http://www.aafp.org/afp/20001001/1565.html.

Mandava, P. and Kent, T. (Updated 2011 March 29). Methylmalonic Acidemia. Medscape Reference [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1161799-overview. Accessed November 2011.

Dugdale, D. (Updated 2010 February 1). Pernicious anemia. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000569.htm. Accessed November 2011.

(© 1995-2011). Unit Code 80289: Methylmalonic Acid (MMA), Quantitative, Serum. Mayo Clinic Mayo Medical Laboratories [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.mayomedicallaboratories.com/test-catalog/Overview/80289. Accessed November 2011.

Frank, E. et. al. (Updated 2010 September). Megaloblastic Anemia. ARUP Consult [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.arupconsult.com/Topics/MegaloblasticAnemia.html?client_ID=LTD#tabs=0. Accessed November 2011.

Bodamer, O. and Lee, B. (Updated 2011 September 14). Genetics of Methylmalonic Acidemia. Medscape Reference [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/947154-overview. Accessed November 2011.

Dugdale, D. (Updated 2009 November 15). Methylmalonic acid test. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003565.htm. Accessed November 2011.

Wu, A. (© 2006). Tietz Clinical Guide to Laboratory Tests. 4th Edition: Saunders Elsevier, St. Louis, MO. Pp 740-741.

Harmening D. Clinical Hematology and Fundamentals of Hemostasis. Fifth Edition, F.A. Davis Company, Philadelphia, 2009, Pg 149.

(Oct. 5, 2011) National Newborn Screening and Genetic Resource Center. National Newborn Screening Status Report. Available online at http://genes-r-us.uthscsa.edu/nbsdisorders.htm. Accessed November 2011.

Ueland PM, Schneede J. Measurement of methylmalonic acid, homocysteine and methionine in cobalamin and folate deficiencies and homocysteinuria. Pubmed online. Available online at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18337849. Accessed November 2011.