NOTE: This article is based on research that utilizes the sources cited here as well as the collective experience of the Lab Tests Online Editorial Review Board. This article is periodically reviewed by the Editorial Board and may be updated as a result of the review. Any new sources cited will be added to the list and distinguished from the original sources used. To access online sources, copy and paste the URL into your browser.
Sources Used in Current Review
ARUP Consult. The Physician's Guide to Test Selection and Interpretation. Nicotine and Metabolites. Available online at http://www.arupconsult.com/Topics/NicotineMetabolites.html through http://www.arupconsult.com. Accessed December 2, 2013.
MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia. Nicotine Poisoning. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002510.htm. Last updated January 30, 2013. Accessed December 2, 2013.
Medical Health Tests. Can you beat a cotinine urine test by drinking a lot of water? Available online at http://www.medicalhealthtests.com/askquestion/166/can-you-beat-a-cotinine-urine-test-by-drinking-a-l.html through http://www.medicalhealthtests.com. Published April 1, 2010. Accessed December 2, 2013.
Jen Wieczner. 10 Things E-Cigarettes Won't Tell You. The Wall Street Journal. Available online at http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB10001424052702304448204579184052293918312 through http://online.wsj.com. Published November 10, 2013. Accessed December 2, 2013.
(June 2011) American Lung Association. General Smoking Facts. Available online at http://www.lung.org/stop-smoking/about-smoking/facts-figures/general-smoking-facts.html through http://www.lung.org. Accessed December 2013.
(July 2012) National Institute on Drug Abuse. Tobacco/Nicotine Addiction. Available online at http://www.drugabuse.gov/drugs-abuse/tobacco-addiction-nicotine through http://www.drugabuse.gov. Accessed December 2013.
Ralph Magnotti, PhD, DABCC. Lab Tests Online adjunct board member.
Sources Used in Previous Reviews
Wu, A. (2006). Tietz Clinical Guide to Laboratory Tests, Fourth Edition. Saunders Elsevier, St. Louis, Missouri. Pp 1326-1327, 1422-1425.
Perez, E. (2007 January 19, Updated). Nicotine. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002510.htm. Accessed on 9/9/07.
Wilson, S. et. al. (2007 April 10). The Role of Air Nicotine in Explaining Racial Differences in Cotinine Among Tobacco-Exposed Children. Medscape from CHEST 2007;131(3):856-862 [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/554042 through http://www.medscape.com. Accessed on 9/9/07.
Barclay, L. (2007 July 20). Comprehensive Smoking Bans May Decrease Secondhand Smoke Exposure. Medscape Medical News [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/560150 through http://www.medscape.com. Accessed on 9/9/07.
(2007 February). Nicotine and Related Compounds in Urine and Serum/Plasma. ARUP Technical Bulletin [On-line information]. PDF available for download through http://www.aruplab.com. Accessed on 9/9/07.
(1999-2000). Cotinine. CDC Laboratory Procedure Manual [On-line information]. PDF available for download at http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nhanes/frequency/lab06_met_cotinine.pdf through http://www.cdc.gov. Accessed on 9/9/07.
(2006 July). Nicotine Replacement Therapy. American Lung Association, Nicotine Replacement Therapy [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.lungusa.org/site/apps/s/content.asp?c=dvLUK9O0E&b=34706&ct=66696 through http://www.lungusa.org. Accessed on 10/6/07.
Thomas, Clayton L., Editor (1997). Taber's Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary. F.A. Davis Company, Philadelphia, PA [18th Edition]. Pp. 1299-1300.
Boulton, M., et. al. Reported (2003 May 9). Nicotine Poisoning After Ingestion of Contaminated Ground Beef --- Michigan, 2003. CDC MMWR [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5218a3.htm through http://www.cdc.gov. Accessed on 10/6/07.
Michigan Department of Community Health. Nicotine Factsheet [On-line information] PDF available for download at http://michigan.gov/documents/Nicotine_Factsheet_82361_7.pdf through http://michigan.gov. Accessed November 2007.
Arup Consult. Nicotine & Metabolites. Available online at http://www.arupconsult.com/Topics/NicotineMetabolites.html#tabs=0 through http://www.arupconsult.com. Accessed Nov 2010.
Medicinenet.com. MedTerms: Nicotine. Available online at http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=22807 through http://www.medterms.com. Accessed Nov 2010.