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Osmolality

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Formal name: Osmolality (plasma, urine, stool)

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NOTE: This article is based on research that utilizes the sources cited here as well as the collective experience of the Lab Tests Online Editorial Review Board. This article is periodically reviewed by the Editorial Board and may be updated as a result of the review. Any new sources cited will be added to the list and distinguished from the original sources used.

Sources Used in Current Review

MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia. Osmolality - blood. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003463.htm. Accessed October 2013.

MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia. Osmolality - urine. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003609.htm. Accessed October 2013.

Healthline. Blood Osmolality Test. Available online at http://www.healthline.com/health/osmolality-blood through http://www.healthline.com. Accessed October 2013. Accessed October 2013.

Tuazon SA et al. Serum Osmolality. Medscape. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/2099042-overview through http://emedicine.medscape.com. Accessed October 2013.

Medscape Editorial Staff. Urine Osmolality. Medscape. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/2088250-overview through http://emedicine.medscape.com. Accessed October 2013.

University of Rochester Online Medical Encyclopedia. Osmolality (Stool). Available online at http://www.urmc.rochester.edu/encyclopedia/content.aspx?ContentTypeID=167&ContentID=osmolality_stool through http://www.urmc.rochester.edu. Accessed October 2013.

Drugs.com. Mannitol. Available online at http://www.drugs.com/cdi/mannitol.html through http://www.drugs.com. Accessed October 2013.

Advanced Instruments, Inc. Osmolarity vs. Osmolality. Available online at http://www.aicompanies.com/index.cfm/AIUniversity/OsmolalityExplained/Osmolarity_vs._Osmolality through http://www.aicompanies.com. Accessed October 2013.

Christine L. Snozek, PhD. Lab Tests Online adjunct board member.

Sources Used in Previous Reviews

Thomas, Clayton L., Editor (1997). Taber's Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary. F.A. Davis Company, Philadelphia, PA [18th Edition]. Pp 1361

Pagana, Kathleen D. & Pagana, Timothy J. (2001). Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 5th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO. Pp 613-616

Peng, K. (2004 May 15). Management of Hyponatremia. American Family Physician [On-line journal]. Available online at http://www.aafp.org/afp/20040515/2387.html through http://www.aafp.org.

Agha, I. (2004 February 23, Updated). Osmolality. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003463.htm.

Agha, I. (2004 February 11, Updated). Osmolality-Urine. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003609.htm.

(© 2005). Electrolyte & Osmolality Profile, Fecal. ARUP's User's Guide [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.aruplab.com/guides/ug/tests/0020699.jsp through http://www.aruplab.com.

Reynolds, R. and Seckl, J. (2005 October 10) Hyponatraemia for the Clinical Endocrinologist. Medscape, From Clinical Endocrinology 2005;63(4):366-374 [On-line journal article]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/514125?src=search through http://www.medscape.com.

Dufour, D. R. (1993 July 13). Osmometry, The Rational Basis for Use of an Underappreciated Diagnostic Tool. Industry Workshop presentation for AACC Meeting New York, New York [On-line information]. PDF available for download at http://www.osmolality.com/pdf/Osmometry.pdf through http://www.osmolality.com.

Dugdale, D. (Updated 2009 August 10). Osmolality - blood. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003463.htm. Accessed January 2010.

Dugdale, D. (Updated 2009 August 7). Osmolality – urine. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003609.htm. Accessed January 2010.

Simon, E. and Hamrahian, S. (Updated 2009 May 29). Hyponatremia. eMedicine [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/242166-overview through http://emedicine.medscape.com. Accessed January 2010.

Lewis, J. (Revised 2009 May). Water and Sodium Balance. Merck Manual for Healthcare Professionals [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.merck.com/mmpe/sec12/ch156/ch156b.html?qt=osmolality&alt=sh#sec12-ch156-ch156b-657a through http://www.merck.com. Accessed January 2010.

Pagana, K. D. & Pagana, T. J. (© 2007). Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 8th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO. Pp 684-687.

Clarke, W. and Dufour, D. R., Editors (© 2006). Contemporary Practice in Clinical Chemistry: AACC Press, Washington, DC. Pp 469, 341.