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NOTE: This article is based on research that utilizes the sources cited here as well as the collective experience of the Lab Tests Online Editorial Review Board. This article is periodically reviewed by the Editorial Board and may be updated as a result of the review. Any new sources cited will be added to the list and distinguished from the original sources used. To access online sources, copy and paste the URL into your browser.
Sources Used in Current Review
June 2015 review performed by Irene Shu, PhD, DABCC, Assistant Laboratory Director, USDTL.
(2015 July 1, Updated) Mayo Clinic. Barbiturate. Available online at http://www.mayoclinic.org/drugs-supplements/barbiturate-oral-route-parenteral-route-rectal-route/description/drg-20069290 through http://www.mayoclinic.org. Accessed on 7/13/2015.
Suzanne Bentley, MD (2014 January 3rd, Updated). Phenobarbital Level. Medscape. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/2090284-overview through http://emedicine.medscape.com. Accessed on 7/13/2015.
Baselt R.C. (© 2014). Disposition of Toxic Drugs and Chemicals in Man. 10th Edition: Biomedical Publications. Seal Beach, CA. Pp 1607-1609.
Levine B. I. (© 2010). Principles of Forensic Toxicology 3rd Edition: American Association for Clinical Chemistry, Inc. Washington, DC. Pp 215 – 220.
Sources Used in Previous Reviews
National Institutes of Health's MedlinePlus. Phenobarbital. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/meds/a682007.html. Reviewed October 1, 2007. Accessed October 3, 2008.
NetdoctorUK.com. Phenobarbital. Available online at http://www.netdoctor.co.uk/medicines/10002060.html through http://www.netdoctor.co.uk. Reviewed August 1, 2007. Accessed October 3, 2008.
Warner, A. et al. Standards of laboratory practice: Antiepileptic Drug Monitoring. Clinical Chemistry 1998; 44:1085–1095. Available online at http://www.clinchem.org/cgi/reprint/44/5/1085 through http://www.clinchem.org. Accessed October 4, 2008.
Kwan, P. and Brodie, M. Phenobarbital for the Treatment of Epilepsy in the 21st Century: A Critical Review. Epilepsia 2004; 9: 1141-1149. Available online at https://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/fulltext/118751051/HTMLSTART?CRETRY=1&SRETRY=0 through https://www3.interscience.wiley.com. Accessed October 4, 2008.
American Society of Health System Pharmacists. Phenobarbital (Systemic). Available online at http://www.ashp.org/mngrphs/essentials/a382855e.htm through http://www.ashp.org. Revised August 2007. Accessed October 5, 2008.
San Diego Reference Laboratory. Phenobarbital. Available online at http://www.sdrl.com/druglist/phenobarbital.html through http://www.sdrl.com. Accessed October 7, 2008.
Burgess, C. ed. Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnostics. 4th Edition, 2006. P. 2312.
Epilepsy Therapy Development Project. Children and Phenobarbital. Available online at http://professionals.epilepsy.com/medications/p_phenobarbital_children.html through http://professionals.epilepsy.com. Accessed October 5, 2008.
Emory School of Medicine, Department of Human Genetics. Seizures and Pregnancy. PDF available for download at http://www.genetics.emory.edu/pdf/Emory_Human_Genetics_Seizures_Pregnancy.PDF through http://www.genetics.emory.edu. Issued 2004. Accessed October 7, 2008.
UC San Diego Medical Center. Safety of Commonly Used Drugs in Nursing Mothers. Available online at http://health.ucsd.edu/specialties/pharmacy/resources/breastfeeding.asp through http://health.ucsd.edu. Reviewed April 2005. Accessed October 8, 2008.
Spencer, Jeanne P. et al. American Family Physician. Medications in the Breast Feeding Mother. Published July 1, 2001. Available online at http://www.aafp.org/afp/20010701/119.html through http://www.aafp.org. Accessed October 8, 2008.
Food and Drug Administration. Information for Healthcare Professionals: Suicidality and Antiepileptic Drugs. Available online at http://www.fda.gov/cder/drug/InfoSheets/HCP/antiepilepticsHCP.htm through http://www.fda.gov. Issued January 31, 2008. Accessed October 4, 2008.
Reinberg, Steve. FDA Advisers Don't Back 'Black Box' Warning for Epilepsy Drugs. The Washington Post. Available online at http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/07/10/AR2008071002527.html through http://www.washingtonpost.com. Published July 10, 2008. Accessed October 7, 2008.
(September 27 2012) National Institutes of Health's Medline Plus. Phenobarbital. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/meds/a682007.html. Accessed October 2012.
(September 25, 2012) Ochoa J. Antiepileptic Drugs. Medscape Reference. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1187334-overview through http://emedicine.medscape.com. Accessed October 2012.
(December 2, 2011) Cavasos J. Epilepsy and Seizures. Medscape Reference. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1184846-overview through http://emedicine.medscape.com. Accessed October 2012.
(April 28, 2011) Mayo Clinic. Epilepsy Treatment and Drugs. Available online at http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/epilepsy/DS00342/DSECTION=treatments-and-drugs through http://www.mayoclinic.com. Accessed October 2012.
Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnostics. Burtis CA, Ashwood ER, Bruns DE, eds. 4th edition, St. Louis: Elsevier Saunders; 2006, Pp 1252-1253.