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Phenytoin

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Also known as: [Often referred to by brand name. See MedlinePlus Medical Drug Information]
Formal name: Phenytoin, total and free

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NOTE: This article is based on research that utilizes the sources cited here as well as the collective experience of the Lab Tests Online Editorial Review Board. This article is periodically reviewed by the Editorial Board and may be updated as a result of the review. Any new sources cited will be added to the list and distinguished from the original sources used.

Sources Used in Current Review

Phenytoin. Medline Plus. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/meds/a682022.html. Last Revised 05/01/2009. Accessed February 13, 2014.

Dilantin. RxList.com. Available online at http://www.rxlist.com/dilantin-drug.htm through http://www.rxlist.com. Last updated February 7, 2014. Accessed February 13, 2014.

Charlene Miller et al. Phenytoin Toxicity Clinical Presentation. Medscape. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/816447-clinical#a0217through http://emedicine.medscape.com. Last updated November 9, 2012. Accessed February 13, 2014.

Phenytoin (Phenytek, Dilantin). NYU Langone Medical Center. Available online at http://epilepsy.med.nyu.edu/treatment/medications/phenytoin#sthash.5jYjrrwC.dpbs through http://epilepsy.med.nyu.edu. Accessed February 13, 2014.

Sources Used in Previous Reviews

Thomas, Clayton L., Editor (1997). Taber's Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary. F.A. Davis Company, Philadelphia, PA [18th Edition].

(2003 April 1, Revised). Phenytoin Oral. MedlinePlus Drug Information [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/medmaster/a682022.html.

Whetstone, W. (2005 May 10, Revised). Phenytoin Overdose. MedlinePlus Drug Information [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/medmaster/a682022.html.

Wilner, A. (2004 October 11). The Epilepsy Continuum: From Age to Age. Medscape [On-line CME]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/489615 through http://www.medscape.com.

Pack, A. (2006 April 28). Therapy Insight: Clinical Management of Pregnant Women With Epilepsy. Medscape from Nat Clin Pract Neurol. 2006;2(4):190-200 [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/530483 through http://www.medscape.com.

Holloway, R. and Jozefowicz, R. (2006 March). Update in Neurology. Ann Intern Med 2006:144:421-426 [On-line journal]. PDF available for download at http://www.annals.org/cgi/reprint/144/6/421.pdf through http://www.annals.org.

(© 2006). Phenytoin, Free & Total. ARUP's Laboratory Test Directory [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.aruplab.com/guides/ug/tests/0090141.jsp through http://www.aruplab.com/.

Morantz, C. and Torrey, B. (2005 January 15). Guidelines for Prescribing Antiepileptic Drugs. American Family Physician: v71(2) [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.aafp.org/afp/20050115/practice.html through http://www.aafp.org.

(© 2006). Phenytoin. Epilepsy.com [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.epilepsy.com/medications/a_phenytoin_intro.html through http://www.epilepsy.com.

(2003 February 1, revised). Seizure Disorders. Merck Manual Home Edition [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.merck.com/mmhe/print/sec06/ch085/ch085a.html through http://www.merck.com.

McMillin GA; Juenke J; Dasgupta A ( Oct. 2005). Effect of ultrafiltrate volume on determination of free phenytoin concentration. Medscape from Ther Drug Monit. 2005; 27(5):630-3 (ISSN: 0163-4356). Available online at http://www.medscape.com/medline/abstract/16175137 through http://www.medscape.com.

Dasgupta A (Oct. 2002). Clinical utility of free drug monitoring. Medscape from Clin Chem Lab Med. 2002; 40(10):986-93 (ISSN: 1434-6621). Available online at http://www.medscape.com/medline/abstract/12476936 through http://www.medscape.com.

(Dec 30, 2008). von Winckelmann S, Spriet I, Willems L. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Phenytoin in Critically Ill Patients. MedScape. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/583862 through http://www.medscape.com. Accessed Sept 2010.

(Updated July 15, 2009). Miller C. Toxicity, Phenytoin. Medscape eMedicine. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/816447-overview through http://emedicine.medscape.com. Accessed September 2010.

(Updated May 1, 2009). Phenytoin. MedlinePlus Drug Information [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/meds/a682022.html. Accessed September 2010.

(Updated February 3, 2009). Duldner J, Phenytoin Overdose. Medline Plus Drug Information. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002533.htm. Accessed September 2010.

Malaty W, Stiglemen S. Antiepileptic Drug Monitoring. Am Fam Physician. 2008 Aug 1;78(3):385-386. Available online at http://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0801/p385.html through http://www.aafp.org. Accessed September 2010.

Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnostics. Burtis CA, Ashwood ER, Bruns DE, eds. St. Louis: Elsevier Saunders; 2006 Pp 1252, 2313.

Carl GF, Smith ML. Phenytoin-folate interactions: differing effects of the sodium salt and the free acid of phenytoin. Epilepsia 1992; 33(2):372-5. Available online at http://www.medscape.com.

Beckmann, Charles R, et al. Obstetrics and Gynecology. 4th Ed. Baltimore: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2002.