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Prolactin

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Also known as: PRL
Formal name: Prolactin

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NOTE: This article is based on research that utilizes the sources cited here as well as the collective experience of the Lab Tests Online Editorial Review Board. This article is periodically reviewed by the Editorial Board and may be updated as a result of the review. Any new sources cited will be added to the list and distinguished from the original sources used.

Sources Used in Current Review

Gremida, A. and Lin, J. (Updated 2013 March 22). Prolactin. Medscape Reference [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/2089400-overview#showall through http://emedicine.medscape.com. Accessed October 2013.

Benson, C. (Updated 2013 March 6). Prolactin Deficiency. Medscape Reference [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/124526-overview#showall through http://emedicine.medscape.com. Accessed October 2013.

Shenenberger, D. (Updated 2013 March 21). Hyperprolactinemia. Medscape Reference [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/121784-overview through http://emedicine.medscape.com. Accessed October 2013.

Meikle, A. W. and Miller, C. (Updated 2013 July). Amenorrhea. ARUP Consult [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.arupconsult.com/Topics/Amenorrhea.html?client_ID=LTD#tabs=0 through http://www.arupconsult.com. Accessed October 2013.

Bielak, K. and Popat, V. (Updated 2012 June 5). Amenorrhea. Medscape Reference [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/252928-overview through http://emedicine.medscape.com. Accessed October 2013.

Liou, L. (Updated 2012 September 17). Prolactin. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003718.htm through http://www.nlm.nih.gov. Accessed October 2013.

(© 1995–2013). Prolactin. Mayo Clinic Mayo Medical Laboratories [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.mayomedicallaboratories.com/test-catalog/Overview/8690 through http://www.mayomedicallaboratories.com. Accessed October 2013.

Pagana, K. D. & Pagana, T. J. (© 2011). Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 10th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO. Pp 790-792.

Sources Used in Previous Reviews

Thomas, Clayton L., Editor (1997). Taber's Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary. F.A. Davis Company, Philadelphia, PA [18th Edition].

Pagana, Kathleen D. & Pagana, Timothy J. (2001). Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 5th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO.

Merck. Anterior Pituitary Function. The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.merck.com/pubs/mmanual/section2/chapter6/6c.htm through http://www.merck.com.

(2002 February 17 Updated). Prolactin. MEDLINEplus Health Information [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003718.htm.

(2002 July 24, Updated). Prolactinoma - males. MEDLINEplus Health Information [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000337.htm.

Pituitary: Overview. The Hormone Foundation [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.hormone.org/learn/pituitary_1.html through http://www.hormone.org.

Pituitary: Secretory Tumors. The Hormone Foundation [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.hormone.org/learn/pituitary_2.html through http://www.hormone.org.

Prolactin test. Hendrick Health System, AccessMed Health Information Library [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.hendrickhealth.org/healthy/00062060.html through http://www.hendrickhealth.org.

ARUP. Prolactin. ARUP's Guide to Clinical laboratory Testing [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.aruplab.com/guides/clt/tests/clt_150b.htm#1145504 through http://www.aruplab.com.

Merck. General. The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy, Section 2. Endocrine And Metabolic Disorders, Chapter 6. Hypothalamic-Pituitary Relationships [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.merck.com/pubs/mmanual/section2/chapter6/6a.htm through http://www.merck.com.

Grunebaum, A. (2001 April 23). A Tiny Gland's Big Role in Pregnancy. WebMD Health Information [On-line information]. Available online at http://my.webmd.com/content/article/3607.442 through http://my.webmd.com.

The Impotence Sourcebook (1998). Laboratory Investigations of Erectile Dysfunction. WebMD Health Information [On-line information]. Available online at http://my.webmd.com/content/article/1680.50141 through http://my.webmd.com.

Spengler, R. (2001 February 22, Updated). Prolactin. WebMD Health Information [On-line information]. vailable online at http://my.webmd.com/printing/article/4118.253 through http://my.webmd.com.

Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, Kasper, et al, 16th Edition, McGraw Hill, 2005, Pg 2084.

Eckman, A. (Updated 2009 October 14). Prolactin. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003718.htm. Accessed April 2010.

Eckman, A. (Updated 2009 November 23). Prolactinoma. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000336.htm. Accessed April 2010.

(2009 May). Prolactinoma. National Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases Information Service [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.endocrine.niddk.nih.gov/pubs/prolact/prolact.htm through http://www.endocrine.niddk.nih.gov. Accessed April 2010.

Shenenberger, D. (Updated 2010 March 12). Hyperprolactinemia. eMedicine [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/121784-overview through http://emedicine.medscape.com. Accessed April 2010.

Mayo Clinic Staff (2010 March 6). Prolactinoma. MayoClinic.com [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/prolactinoma/DS00532 through http://www.mayoclinic.com. Accessed April 2010.

Pagana, K. D. & Pagana, T. J. (© 2007). Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 8th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO. Pp 767-768.

Clarke, W. and Dufour, D. R., Editors (© 2006). Contemporary Practice in Clinical Chemistry: AACC Press, Washington, DC. Pp 354-355.

Wu, A. (© 2006). Tietz Clinical Guide to Laboratory Tests, 4th Edition: Saunders Elsevier, St. Louis, MO. Pp 900-901.

Fahie-Wilson, M (2003). In Hyperprolactinemia, Testing for Macroprolactin Is Essential, Clinical Chemistry. 2003;49:1434-1436. Available online at http://www.clinchem.org/cgi/content/full/49/9/1434 through http://www.clinchem.org. Accessed June 2010.

(May 2007) Fahie-Wilson M. Macroprolactin. Clinical Laboratory News Volume 33, Number 5. Available online at http://www.aacc.org/publications/cln/2007/may/Pages/series_0507.aspx through http://www.aacc.org. Accessed June 2010.

Suliman AM, Smith TP, Gibney J,McKenna T Joseph. Frequent Misdiagnosis and Mismanagement of Hyperprolactinemic Patients before the Introduction of Macroprolactin Screening: Application of a New Strict Laboratory Definition of Macroprolactinemia. Clin Chem 2003;49:1504-1509.