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PSA

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Also known as: Total PSA; Free PSA; Complexed PSA
Formal name: Prostate Specific Antigen

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NOTE: This article is based on research that utilizes the sources cited here as well as the collective experience of the Lab Tests Online Editorial Review Board. This article is periodically reviewed by the Editorial Board and may be updated as a result of the review. Any new sources cited will be added to the list and distinguished from the original sources used.

Sources Used in Current Review

(2011 October 11) U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for Prostate Cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement DRAFT [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf12/prostate/draftrecprostate.htm through http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org. Accessed May 2012.

Simon, S. (2012 May 21). Task Force Recommends Against Routine Prostate Cancer Screening. American Cancer Society. [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.cancer.org/Cancer/news/News/task-force-recommends-against-routine-prostate-cancer-screenin through http://www.cancer.org. Accessed May 2012.

(2012 May 29). U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Advises against PSA Screening. NCI Cancer Bulletin v9 (11). [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.cancer.gov/ncicancerbulletin/052912/page4 through http://www.cancer.gov. Accessed May 2012.

Norton, A. (2012 May 28). Doctors disagree on when to stop PSA screening. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia from Reuters Health [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_125648.html through http://www.nlm.nih.gov. Accessed May 2012.

(Updated 2012 March 28). National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse (NKUDIC). Medical Tests for Prostate Problems [On-line information]. Available online at http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov/kudiseases/pubs/medtestprostate/ through http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov. Accessed May 2012.

Wiebe, C. (2012 May 29). Before PSA Screening, 'People Were Drowning.' Medscape Medical News from the American Urological Association (AUA) 2012 Annual Scientific Meeting [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/764659 through http://www.medscape.com. Accessed May 2012.

Pagana, K. D. & Pagana, T. J. (© 2011). Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 10th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO. Pp 795-798.

Clarke, W., Editor (© 2011). Contemporary Practice in Clinical Chemistry 2nd Edition: AACC Press, Washington, DC. Pp 500-501.

(Updated 22 May 2012). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Prostate Cancer - Screening. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/cancer/prostate/basic_info/screening.htm through http://www.cdc.gov. Accessed June 2012. 

(Last Revised 5 March 2012). American Cancer Society. American Cancer Society Guidelines for the Early Detection of Cancer. Available online at http://www.cancer.org/Healthy/FindCancerEarly/CancerScreeningGuidelines/american-cancer-society-guidelines-for-the-early-detection-of-cancer through http://www.cancer.org. Accessed June 2012. 

Sources Used in Previous Reviews

Thomas, Clayton L., Editor (1997). Taber's Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary. F.A. Davis Company, Philadelphia, PA [18th Edition].

Pagana, Kathleen D. & Pagana, Timothy J. (2001). Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 5th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO.

Ballentine Carter, H., et. al. (2204 September 22). Report to the Nation on Prostate Cancer 2004, Chapter 1: Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis of Prostate Cancer CME. Medscape Today, Clinical Update [On-line CME]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewprogram/3440?src=sidesearch through http://www.medscape.com.

(2005 January 1, Revised). Detailed Guide: Prostate Cancer, Can Prostate Cancer Be Found Early? American Cancer Society [On-line information]. Available online through http://www.cancer.org.

(2004 August 17, Reviewed). The Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Test: Questions and Answers. National Cancer Institute, Cancer Facts [On-line information]. Available online at http://cis.nci.nih.gov/fact/5_29.htm through http://cis.nci.nih.gov.

(2004 May 26). Some Men with Low PSAs Have Prostate Cancer: Most Cancers Found Are Not Likely to Be Clinically Significant. NIH News [On-line Press Release]. Available online at http://www.nih.gov/news/pr/may2004/nci-26.htm through http://www.nih.gov.

(© 1995 – 2004). Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia. Merck Manual [On-line information]. Available online through http://www.merck.com.

(2003 March, Reviewed). Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH). Familydoctor.org [[On-line information]. Available online at http://familydoctor.org/148.xml through http://familydoctor.org.

(2003 August, Reviewed). American Urological Association. Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH), A Patient’s Guide. Available online through http://www.urologyhealth.org.

Pagana, K. D. & Pagana, T. J. (© 2007). Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 8th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO. Pp 772-774.

Clarke, W. and Dufour, D. R., Editors (© 2006). Contemporary Practice in Clinical Chemistry: AACC Press, Washington, DC. Pp 243, 246.

Wu, A. (© 2006). Tietz Clinical Guide to Laboratory Tests, 4th Edition: Saunders Elsevier, St. Louis, MO. Pp 906-913.

(2008 November 20). What you need to know about Prostate Cancer. National Cancer Institute [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/wyntk/prostate through http://www.cancer.gov. Accessed March 2009.

(© 2009). Detailed Guide: Prostate Cancer. American Cancer Society [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.cancer.org/docroot/CRI/CRI_2_3x.asp?rnav=cridg&dt=36 through http://www.cancer.org. Accessed March 2009.

(2009 March 19). PSA Testing: What Should Men Do? Fallout from 2 studies, pro and con, has experts in a quandary. MedlinePlus HealthDay [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_81937.html through http://www.nlm.nih.gov. Accessed March 2009.

Morse Linn, M. et al (Posted 2008 January 9). Prostate-Specific Antigen Screening: Friend or Foe? Emedicine from Urol Nurs. 2007;27(6):481-489. [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/568053 through http://www.medscape.com. Accessed March 2009.

Chustecka, Z. News and Lie, D. CME (Released 2008 August 5). USPSTF Recommends Against Prostate Cancer Screening in Men 75 Years or Older. CME/CE Medscape Medical News, Online CME [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/578591 through http://www.medscape.com. Accessed March 2009.

Michael, A. et al (Posted 2009 March 6). Prostate Cancer Chemotherapy in the Era of Targeted Therapy. Medscape from Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2009;12(1):13-16. [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/589071 through http://www.medscape.com. Accessed March 2009.

Melanie Ketchandji, M. et al (Posted 2009 February 5). Cause of Death in Older Men After the Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer. Medscape from J Am Geriatr Soc. 2009;57(1):24-30. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/586741 through http://www.medscape.com. Accessed March 2009.

(Reviewed 2009 March 18). Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Test. NCI Fact Sheet [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/factsheet/Detection/PSA through http://www.cancer.gov. Accessed March 2009.

Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnostics. Burtis CA, Ashwood ER and Bruns DE, eds. 4th ed. St. Louis, Missouri: Elsevier Saunders; 2006, Pg 761.

(July 30, 2009) American Cancer Society. Following PSA Levels After Treatment Meant to Cure Prostate Cancer. Available online at http://www.cancer.org/docroot/CRI/content/CRI_2_4_4X_Following_PSA_levels_36.asp?sitearea= through http://www.cancer.org. Accessed August 2009.

McDermed J. Using PSA Intelligently to Manage Prostate Cancer. Part 2 of 2. PCRI Insights. August, 2005. Vol. 8, no. 3. Available online at http://www.prostate-cancer.org/education/preclin/McDermed_Using_PSA_Intelligently2.html through http://www.prostate-cancer.org. Accessed November 2009.

Pagana K, Pagana T. Mosby's Manual of Diagnostic and Laboratory Tests. 3rd Edition, St. Louis: Mosby Elsevier; 2006 Pp.430.