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Rubella Test

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Also known as: German Measles; Three-day Measles; 3-day Measles
Formal name: Rubella Antibodies, IgM and IgG

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NOTE: This article is based on research that utilizes the sources cited here as well as the collective experience of the Lab Tests Online Editorial Review Board. This article is periodically reviewed by the Editorial Board and may be updated as a result of the review. Any new sources cited will be added to the list and distinguished from the original sources used.

Sources Used for Current Review

May 2015 reviewer: Zhen Zhao, PhD, DABCC, Director of General Chemistry, Department of Laboratory Medicine, NIH Clinical Center.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Epidemiology and Prevention of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases. Hamborsky J, Kroger A, Wolfe S, eds. 13th ed. Washington D.C. Public Health Foundation, 2015, Chapter 20, Rubella. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/pubs/pinkbook/downloads/rubella.pdf through http://www.cdc.gov. Accessed May 2015.

CDC Manual for the Surveillance of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases. 5th Edition, 2012. Chapter 14: Rubella.

WHO Manual for the laboratory diagnosis of measles and rubella virus infection. 2nd Edition, 2007.

Simon R Dobson. Congenital rubella syndrome: Clinical features and diagnosis. UpToDate (updated: June 02, 2014).

Sources Used in Previous Reviews

Thomas, Clayton L., Editor (1997). Taber's Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary. F.A. Davis Company, Philadelphia, PA [18th Edition].

Pagana, Kathleen D. & Pagana, Timothy J. (2001). Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 5th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO., Pp 751-752.

(© 2005). Rubella Antibodies, IgG and IgM. ARUP's Guide to Clinical Laboratory Testing. Available online at http://www.arup-lab.com/guides/clt/tests/clt_192b.jsp#1147292 through http://www.aruplab.com.

Ben-Joseph, E. (2003 October, Reviewed). Rubella (German Measles). Familydoctor.org. Available online at http://www.kidshealth.org/PageManager.jsp?dn=familydoctor&lic=44&article_set=22917 through http://www.kidshealth.org

CDC (2005). Achievements in Public Health: Elimination of Rubella and Congenital Rubella Syndrome - United States, 1969-2004. Medscape, from MMWR. 2005; 54 (11): 279-282. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/501956 through http://www.medscape.com

A.D.A.M. editorial, Reviewed (2003 September 26, Reviewed). Previously reviewed by Adam Ratner. Rubella. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001574.htm through http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/encyclopedia.html

Mayo Clinic Staff (2004 June 16). Rubella. MayoClinic.com. Available online at http://www.mayoclinic.com/invoke.cfm?id=DS00332 through http://www.mayoclinic.com

Stevens, L. (2002). Rubella. Medem Medical Library, JAMA Patient Page, from JAMA. 2002; 287:542. Available online at http://www.medem.com/MedLB/article_detaillb.cfm?article_ID=ZZZV5AZLMWC&sub_cat=286 through http://www.medem.com

Hughes, H. and Wharton, M. (2002). K. Rubella. VPD Surveillance Manual, 3rd Edition, Chapter 19, Laboratory Support for the Surveillance of VPDs: 19-16. PDF available for download at http://www.cdc.gov/nip/publications/surv-manual/chpt19_lab_support.pdf through http://www.cdc.gov

Hirsch, Lisa. Rubella (German Measles). (Reviewed July 2006). Familydoctor.org. Available online at http://www.kidshealth.org/PageManager.jsp?dn=familydoctor&lic=44&article_set=22917 through http://www.kidshealth.org. Accessed April 2008.

Averhoff F, et al. Adequacy of surveillance to detect endemic rubella transmission in the United States. Clin Infect Dis. 2006; 43 Suppl 3:S151-7. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/medline/abstract through http://www.medscape.com. Accessed April 2008.

(July 9, 2007) Mayo Clinic Staff. Rubella. MayoClinic.com. Available online at http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/rubella/DS00332/DSECTION=1 through http://www.mayoclinic.com. Accessed April 2008.

(June 20, 2007) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Travelers Health: Yellow Book, Chapter 4: Prevention of Specific Infectious Diseases, Rubella. Available online at http://wwwn.cdc.gov/travel/yellowBookCh4-Rubella.aspx through http://wwwn.cdc.gov. Accessed April 2008.

Jin L, Thomas B. Application of molecular and serological assays to case based investigations of rubella and congenital rubella syndrome. J Med Virol. 2007; 79(7):1017-24. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/medline/abstract/17516526 through http://www.medscape.com. Accessed April 2008.

(Updated May 2007) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Guidelines for Vaccinating Pregnant Women. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/pubs/preg-guide.htm#rubella through http://www.cdc.gov. Accessed online April 2008.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. MMWR (March 21, 2008) 51(53). Summary of Notifiable Diseases - United States 2006. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5553a1.htm through http://www.cdc.gov. Accessed online April 2008.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Travelers’ Health, Chapter 3 Infectious Diseases Related To Travel, Rubella. Available online at http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/yellowbook/2012/chapter-3-infectious-diseases-related-to-travel/rubella.htm through http://wwwnc.cdc.gov. Accessed October 2011.

Mayo Clinic Staff (2011 July 9) Rubella. MayoClinic.com [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.mayoclinic.com/print/rubella/DS00332/DSECTION=all&METHOD=print through http://www.mayoclinic.com. Accessed October 2011.

(Updated 2011 January 3). Rubella: Make Sure Your Child Is Fully Immunized. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/features/rubella/ through http://www.cdc.gov. Accessed October 2011.

Kaneshiro, N. (Updated 2011 May 1). Congenital rubella. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001658.htm through http://www.nlm.nih.gov. Accessed October 2011.

Kaneshiro, N. (Updated 2011 January 24). Rubella. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001574.htm through http://www.nlm.nih.gov. Accessed October 2011.

Litwin, C. (Updated 2010 October). Rubella Virus. ARUP Consult [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.arupconsult.com/Topics/RubellaVirus.html?client_ID=LTD through http://www.arupconsult.com. Accessed October 2011.

P Strebel, P. et. al. (2010 December 3). Progress Toward Control of Rubella and Prevention of Congenital Rubella Syndrome — Worldwide, 2009. Medscape Today News from Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report. 2010;59(40):1307-1310 [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/730825 through http://www.medscape.com. Accessed October 2011.

Ezike, E. and Ang, J. (Updated 2011 October 3). Pediatric Rubella. Medscape Reference [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/968523-overview#showall through http://emedicine.medscape.com. Accessed October 2011.

Pagana, K. D. & Pagana, T. J. (© 2011). Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 10th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO. Pp 852-853.

(February 18, 2011) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. FastStats, Measles Morbidity. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/measles.htm through http://www.cdc.gov. Accessed October 2011.