Proceeds from website advertising help sustain Lab Tests Online. AACC is a not-for-profit organization and does not endorse non-AACC products and services.

Second Trimester Maternal Serum Screening

Print this article
Share this page:
Also known as: AFP Maternal; Maternal Serum AFP; MSAFP; msAFP; Triple Screen; Triple Test; Quad Screen; Quadruple Marker Test; 4-marker Screen; Multiple Marker Test
Formal name: Maternal Serum Screen

Were you looking instead for AFP tumor markers, used to help diagnose and monitor therapy for certain cancers of the liver, testes, or ovaries?

Board approvedAll content on Lab Tests Online has been reviewed and approved by the Editorial Review Board.

Article Sources

« Return to Related Pages

NOTE: This article is based on research that utilizes the sources cited here as well as the collective experience of the Lab Tests Online Editorial Review Board. This article is periodically reviewed by the Editorial Board and may be updated as a result of the review. Any new sources cited will be added to the list and distinguished from the original sources used. To access online sources, copy and paste the URL into your browser.

Sources Used in Current Review

(2014 April). American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Screening tests for birth defects, FAQ.  Available online at http://www.acog.org/Patients/FAQs/Screening-Tests-for-Birth-Defects. Accessed 12/26/2016.

(2015 September). American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Committee Opinion, Number 640. Available online at http://www.acog.org/Resources-And-Publications/Committee-Opinions/Committee-on-Genetics/Cell-free-DNA-Screening-for-Fetal-Aneuploidy. Accessed 12/26/2016.

Mayo Clinic staff. (2015 October 21). Quad screen. Mayo Clinic. Available online at http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/quad-screen/MY00127. Accessed 12/26/2016.

(Reviewed 2016 April 21). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Folic acid, recommendations. Available online at https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/folicacid/recommendations.html. Accessed 12/26/2016.

(2016 May). American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Practice Bulletin Number 163: Screening for fetal aneuploidy. Available online at https://s3.amazonaws.com/cdn.smfm.org/publications/224/download-491f0e6962960848d2097447ab57a024.pdf. Accessed 12/26/2016.

(2016 September). American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Screening for birth defects.  Available online at http://www.acog.org/~/media/For%20Patients/faq165.pdf?dmc=1&ts=20130213T1410405774. Accessed 12/26/2016.

(2016 October). March of Dimes. Down syndrome. Available online at http://www.marchofdimes.com/baby/birthdefects_downsyndrome.html. Accessed 12/26/2016.

(Reviewed 2016 October 20). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Birth defects, diagnosis. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/birthdefects/diagnosis.html. Accessed 12/26/2016.

(© 1995-2016). Mayo Medical Laboratories. Quad screen (second trimester) maternal, serum. Available online at http://www.mayomedicallaboratories.com/test-catalog/Clinical+and+Interpretive/81149. Accessed 12/26/2016.

(© 2016). Trisomy 18 Foundation. What is trisomy 18? Available online at http://www.trisomy18.org/site/PageServer?pagename=whatisT18_whatis. Accessed 12/26/2016.

(© 2016). Quest Diagnostics Test Center. Prenatal Screening and Diagnosis of Neural Tube Defects, Down Syndrome, and Trisomy 18. Available online at http://www.questdiagnostics.com/testcenter/testguide.action?dc=CF_PrenatScreen. Accessed January 2017.

(September 2016) American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Prenatal Genetic Screening Tests. Available online at http://www.acog.org/Patients/FAQs/Prenatal-Genetic-Screening-Tests?IsMobileSet=false. Accessed January 2017.

Sources Used in Previous Reviews

Thomas, Clayton L., Editor (1997). Taber's Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary. F.A. Davis Company, Philadelphia, PA [18th Edition].

Pagana, Kathleen D. & Pagana, Timothy J. (2001). Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 5th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO.

Shirley L. Welch, PhD, DABCC, FACB. Director of Chemistry, Kaiser Permanente, NW, Portland, OR.

Barkai G, Goldman B, Ries L, Chake R, Zer T, Cuckle H. Prenatal Diagnosis 13: 843-850 (1993).

Lambert-Messerlian GM, Saller DN, Tumber MB, French CA, Peterson CJ, Canick JA. Prenatal Diagnosis 18: 1061-1067 (1998).

Cuckle H, et al. Prenatal Diagnosis 10: 71-77 (1990).

(2006 January). Healthy Pregnancy, The Second Trimester. WomensHealth.gov [on-line information]. Available online at http://www.womenshealth.gov/pregnancy/pregnancy/2nd.cfm. Accessed 2/25/07.

Barclay, L. and Lie, D. (2007 January 4). New Guidelines Recommend Universal Prenatal Screening for Down Syndrome. Medscape Medical News [on-line CME]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/550256. Accessed 2/25/07.

Pagana, Kathleen D. & Pagana, Timothy J. (2007). Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 5th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO. Pp. 47-49, 416-419, 651-652.

Ashwood, E. et. al., Reviewed (2007 January). Prenatal Screening and Diagnosis. ARUP Consult [on-line information]. Available online at http://www.arupconsult.com/Topics/Perinatal_Disease/Prenatal_Screening_and_Diagnosis.html. Accessed 2/17/07.

Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnostics. Burtis CA, Ashwood ER, Bruns DE, eds. St. Louis: Elsevier Saunders; 2006, Pp 2167-2173.

(April 9, 2010) Singh D. Prenatal Diagnosis for Congenital Malformations and Genetic Disorders. Medscape article. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1200683-overview. Accessed September 2010.

(2008 November). Maternal Blood Screening for Birth Defects. March of Dimes [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.marchofdimes.com/professionals/14332_1166.asp. Accessed September 2010.

Clarke, W. and Dufour, D. R., Editors (2006). Contemporary Practice in Clinical Chemistry. AACC Press, Washington, DC, Pp 416-418.

(September 2009) American Pregnancy Association. Triple Screen Test: Multiple Marker Screen and Quad Screen. Available online at http://www.americanpregnancy.org/prenataltesting/. Accessed September 2010.

(June 30, 2010) Mayo Clinic. Quad Screen. Available online at http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/quad-screen/MY00127. Accessed September 2010.

Trisomy 18 Foundation. Available online at http://www.trisomy18.org. Accessed September 2010.

Barclay, L. and Lie, D. (Reviewed 2008 January 3). New Guidelines Recommend Universal Prenatal Screening for Down Syndrome. Medscape Medical News [on-line CME]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/550256. Accessed September 2010.

Trisomy 18 Foundation. What is Trisomy 18? Available online at http://www.trisomy18.org/site/PageServer?pagename=whatisT18_whatis. Accessed February 2013.

March of Dimes. Birth defects: Down syndrome. Available online at http://www.marchofdimes.com/baby/birthdefects_downsyndrome.html. Accessed February 2013.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Folic Acid Recommendations. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/folicacid/recommendations.html. Accessed February 2013.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Birth Defects, Diagnosis. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/birthdefects/diagnosis.html. Accessed February 2013.

ACOG. Screening for Birth Defects. Available online at http://www.acog.org/~/media/For%20Patients/faq165.pdf?dmc=1&ts=20130213T1410405774. Accessed February 2013.

KidsHealth.org. What is the Multiple Marker Test? Available online at http://kidshealth.org/parent/system/medical/triple_screen.html. Accessed February 2013.

MayoClinic.com. Quad screen. Available online at http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/quad-screen/MY00127. Accessed February 2013.

ARUP Laboratories. Maternal Serum Screen, Alpha Fetoprotein, hCG, and Estriol. Available online at http://www.aruplab.com/guides/ug/tests/0080108.jsp. Accessed February 2013.