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Sodium

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Also known as: Na
Formal name: Sodium

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NOTE: This article is based on research that utilizes the sources cited here as well as the collective experience of the Lab Tests Online Editorial Review Board. This article is periodically reviewed by the Editorial Board and may be updated as a result of the review. Any new sources cited will be added to the list and distinguished from the original sources used. To access online sources, copy and paste the URL into your browser.

Sources Used in Current Review

Harrison, P. (2015 August 14). Low-Normal Serum Sodium Identified as a Risk Factor for CVD/Death. Medscape Multispecialty. [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/849532. Accessed 8/15/15.

Craig, S. (2015 August 5, Updated). Hyponatremia in Emergency Medicine. Medscape Drugs & Diseases [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/767624-overview. Accessed 8/15/15.

Lukitsch, I. (2015 March 21, Updated). Hypernatremia. Medscape Drugs & Diseases [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/241094-overview. Accessed 8/15/15.

Dugdale, D. (2013 October 29, Updated). Sodium blood test. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003481.htm. Accessed 8/15/15.

Dugdale, D. (2013 April 14, Updated). Hyponatremia. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000394.htm. Accessed 8/15/15.

Mir, F. (2013 December 5, Updated). Serum Sodium. Medscape Drugs & Diseases. [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/2099065-overview. Accessed 8/15/15.

Sources Used in Previous Reviews

Tietz. Fundamentals of Clinical Chemistry, 2001; Fifth edition. Elsevier Health Sciences.

Boh, LE. Pharmacy Practice Manual, 2001; Second edition. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

NewsTarget. Pass on the Salt: News Release. Friday, August 18, 2006. Available online through http://www.mayoclinic.org. Accessed January 2008.

Jacobs & DeMott. Laboratory Test Handbook, 2001; 5th edition. Lexi-Comp, Inc.

Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnostics. Burtis CA, Ashwood ER, Bruns DE, eds. St. Louis: Elsevier Saunders; 2006.

Clarke, W. and Dufour, D. R., Editors (2006). Contemporary Practice in Clinical Chemistry, AACC Press, Washington, DC.

Food and Nutrition Board. Institute of Medicine of the National Academies, Dietary Reference Intake Tables, Water and Electrolytes. PDF available for download at http://www.iom.edu.

Wu, A. (2006). Tietz Clinical Guide to Laboratory Tests, Fourth Edition. Saunders Elsevier, St. Louis, Missouri.

Pagana K, Pagana T. Mosby's Manual of Diagnostic and Laboratory Tests. 3rd Edition, St. Louis: Mosby Elsevier; 2006.

Thomas, Clayton L., Editor (1997). Taber's Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary. F.A. Davis Company, Philadelphia, PA [18th Edition].

Pagana, Kathleen D. & Pagana, Timothy J. (2001). Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 5th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO.

(1995-2004). Minerals and Electrolytes. The Merck Manual of Medical Information Second Home Edition [On-line information]. Available online through http://www.merck.com.

Ben-Joseph, E., Reviewed (2004 July). Dehydration. Familydoctor.org Information for Parents [On-line information]. Available online through http://www.kidshealth.org.

A.D.A.M. editorial, Updated (2003 October 15). Electrolytes. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002350.htm.

Pagana K, Pagana T. Mosby's Manual of Diagnostic and Laboratory Tests. 4th edition, Pp. 479-482; 989-992.

USDA. Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010. Available online at http://www.cnpp.usda.gov/DGAs2010-PolicyDocument.htm. Accessed August 2011.

MayoClinic.com. Hyponatremia. Available online at http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/hyponatremia/DS00974. Accessed August 2011.