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Also known as: Na
Formal name: Sodium

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NOTE: This article is based on research that utilizes the sources cited here as well as the collective experience of the Lab Tests Online Editorial Review Board. This article is periodically reviewed by the Editorial Board and may be updated as a result of the review. Any new sources cited will be added to the list and distinguished from the original sources used.

Sources Used in Current Review

Pagana K, Pagana T. Mosby’s Manual of Diagnostic and Laboratory Tests. 4th edition, Pp. 479-482; 989-992.

USDA. Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010. Available online at through Accessed August 2011. Hyponatremia. Available online at through Accessed August 2011. 

Sources Used in Previous Reviews

Tietz. Fundamentals of Clinical Chemistry, 2001; Fifth edition. Elsevier Health Sciences.

Boh, LE. Pharmacy Practice Manual, 2001; Second edition. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

NewsTarget. Pass on the Salt: News Release. Friday, August 18, 2006. Available online through Accessed January 2008.

Jacobs & DeMott. Laboratory Test Handbook, 2001; 5th edition. Lexi-Comp, Inc.

Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnostics. Burtis CA, Ashwood ER, Bruns DE, eds. St. Louis: Elsevier Saunders; 2006.

Clarke, W. and Dufour, D. R., Editors (2006). Contemporary Practice in Clinical Chemistry, AACC Press, Washington, DC.

Food and Nutrition Board. Institute of Medicine of the National Academies, Dietary Reference Intake Tables, Water and Electrolytes. PDF available for download at

Wu, A. (2006). Tietz Clinical Guide to Laboratory Tests, Fourth Edition. Saunders Elsevier, St. Louis, Missouri.

Pagana K, Pagana T. Mosby's Manual of Diagnostic and Laboratory Tests. 3rd Edition, St. Louis: Mosby Elsevier; 2006.

Thomas, Clayton L., Editor (1997). Taber's Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary. F.A. Davis Company, Philadelphia, PA [18th Edition].

Pagana, Kathleen D. & Pagana, Timothy J. (2001). Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 5th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO.

(1995-2004). Minerals and Electrolytes. The Merck Manual of Medical Information Second Home Edition [On-line information]. Available online through

Ben-Joseph, E., Reviewed (2004 July). Dehydration. Information for Parents [On-line information]. Available online through

A.D.A.M. editorial, Updated (2003 October 15). Electrolytes. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at