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TB Screening Tests

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Also known as: Purified Protein Derivative; PPD; Mantoux; Latent Tuberculosis Infection Test; Interferon-gamma Release Assays; IGRA; T-Spot®.TB; QuantiFERON®-TB Gold (QFT-G); QuantiFERON®-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT)
Formal name: Tuberculin Skin Test; Interferon Gamma Release Assays

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NOTE: This article is based on research that utilizes the sources cited here as well as the collective experience of the Lab Tests Online Editorial Review Board. This article is periodically reviewed by the Editorial Board and may be updated as a result of the review. Any new sources cited will be added to the list and distinguished from the original sources used.

Sources Used in Current Review

Patel, N. (Updated 2014 January 17). Tuberculosis Screening. Medscape Reference [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1947912-overview through http://emedicine.medscape.com. Accessed August 2014.

Posey, D. et. al. (2104). Implementation of New TB Screening Requirements for U.S.-Bound Immigrants and Refugees — 2007–2014. Medscape Multispecialty from Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2014;63(11):234-236. [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/822422 through http://www.medscape.com. Accessed August 2014.

(2014 March 20). Tuberculosis in U.S. Hits Record Low: CDC . HealthDay [On-line information]. Available online at http://consumer.healthday.com/infectious-disease-information-21/antibiotics-news-30/tuberculosis-in-u-s-hits-record-low-cdc-686024.html through http://consumer.healthday.com. Accessed August 2014.

(Updated 2012 December 21) Questions and Answers About TB. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/tb/publications/faqs/default.htm through http://www.cdc.gov. Accessed August 2014.

(© 2014). Tuberculosis. American Lung Association [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.lung.org/lung-disease/tuberculosis/ through http://www.lung.org. Accessed August 2014.

(Updated 2012 September 1). Tuberculin Skin Testing. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/tb/publications/factsheets/testing/skintesting.htm through http://www.cdc.gov. Accessed August 2014.

Green, N. (Reviewed 2014 January). Tuberculosis. TeensHealth from Nemours [On-line information]. Available online at http://kidshealth.org/teen/infections/bacterial_viral/tuberculosis.html through http://kidshealth.org. Accessed August 2014.

Pagana, K. D. & Pagana, T. J. (© 2011). Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 10th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO. Pp 985-987.

Sources Used in Previous Reviews

Thomas, Clayton L., Editor (1997). Taber's Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary. F.A. Davis Company, Philadelphia, PA [18th Edition].

Pagana, Kathleen D. & Pagana, Timothy J. (2001). Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 5th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO.

Heimerdinger, M. (2000). Tuberculosis. ACP-ASIM [On-line session report]. Available online at http://www.acponline.org/vas2000/sessions/tb.htm through http://www.acponline.org.

Kirchner, J. (2000 February 1). Do Sputum Smears Positive for AFB Signify Treatment Failure? American Family Physician [On-line journal]. Available online at http://www.aafp.org/afp/20000201/tips/25.html through http://www.aafp.org.

Jerant, A. et.al. (2000 May 1). Identification and Management of Tuberculosis. American Family Physician [On-line journal]. Available online at http://www.aafp.org/afp/20000501/2667.html through http://www.aafp.org.

Sadovsky, R. (2001 May 15). Making the Diagnosis of Tuberculosis in Children. American Family Physician [On-line journal]. Available online at http://www.aafp.org/afp/20010515/tips/9.html through http://www.aafp.org.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2002 August 13, Reviewed). Frequently Asked Questions, Questions and Answers about TB. National Center for HIV, STD and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/nchstp/tb/faqs/qa.htm through http://www.cdc.gov.

Tuberculosis. The Merck Manual of Medical Information--Home Edition [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.merck.com/pubs/mmanual_home/sec17/181.htm through http://www.merck.com.

Tan, L.J. (2000 June 28, Updated). ATS/CDC Statement Revises Treatment and Testing for Latent TB Infection. American Medical Association [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.ama-assn.org/ama/pub/article/1865-2125.html through http://www.ama-assn.org.

Mazurek, G. & Villarino, M. (2002 December 18 Updated). Guidelines for Using the QuantiFERON®-TB Test for Diagnosing Latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report [On-line report]. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/di51cha1.htm through http://www.cdc.gov.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2002 March 23, Reviewed). TB and HIV Coinfection. National Center for HIV, STD and TB Prevention, Division of Tuberculosis Elimination [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/nchstp/tb/pubs/TB_HIVcoinfection/default.htm through http://www.cdc.gov.

Tuberculosis: Ancient Enemy Present Threat, "I must die": Tuberculosis in History. NAIAD [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.niaid.nih.gov/newsroom/focuson/tb02/story.htm through http://www.niaid.nih.gov.

Tuberculosis (TB). American Lung Association [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.lungusa.org/diseases/lungtb.html through http://www.lungusa.org.

(2002 January). American Lung Association® Fact Sheet: Tuberculosis. ALA [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.lungusa.org/diseases/tbfac.html through http://www.lungusa.org.

(2002 January). American Lung Association® Fact Sheet: Tuberculosis Skin Test. ALA [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.lungusa.org/diseases/tbskinfac.html through http://www.lungusa.org.

(2002 January). American Lung Association® Fact Sheet: Pediatric Tuberculosis. ALA [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.lungusa.org/diseases/pedtbfac.html through http://www.lungusa.org.

NIAID (1999 December 1, Updated). The Global Burden of Tuberculosis. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health [On-line publication]. Available online at http://www.niaid.nih.gov/publications/blueprint/page2.htm through http://www.niaid.nih.gov.

Tuberculin skin test. Hendrick Health System AccessMed [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.hendrickhealth.org/healthy/00069330.html through http://www.hendrickhealth.org.

Tuberculosis. Hendrick Health System AccessMed [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.hendrickhealth.org/healthy/00069340.html through http://www.hendrickhealth.org.

Mycobacteriology, Introduction to the Genus Mycobacteria. Microbiology Public Health for Northern Alberta, Bugs on the Web [On-line information]. Available online at http://www2.provlab.ab.ca/bugs/mycob/mbintro.htm through http://www2.provlab.ab.ca.

Mycobacteriology, Acid-Fast Staining Procedures for Mycobacteria. Microbiology Public Health for Northern Alberta, Bugs on the Web [On-line information]. Available online at http://www2.provlab.ab.ca/bugs/mycob/afb_stain/afb_tutorial.htm through http://www2.provlab.ab.ca.

Hall, G. (2001). Practical Microbiology, Update on Broth Media for the Isolation of Mycobacterium Species. Medscape from Infect Med 18(1):28-30, 2001 [On-line journal]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/410131 through http://www.medscape.com.

Tuberculin Purified Protein Derivative (Mantoux) Tubersol. Aventis Pasteur Inc. (Swiftwater, PA) [Package Insert].

(1996 October 28, Rev L). AccuProbe, Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Complex Culture Identification Test. Gen-Probe [Package Insert]. Available online at http://www.gen-probe.com/mtd.html through http://www.gen-probe.com.

(2006 March). QuantiFERON-TB Gold Test. Accessed December 10, 2006. National Center for HIV, STD, and TB Prevention, Division of Tuberculosis Elimination Fact Sheet [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/nchstp/tb/pubs/tbfactsheets/250103.htm through http://www.cdc.gov.

(2006 April). Diagnosis of Tuberculosis Disease. Accessed December 10, 2006. National Center for HIV, STD, and TB Prevention, Division of Tuberculosis Elimination Fact Sheet [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/nchstp/tb/pubs/tbfactsheets/250102.htm through http://www.cdc.gov.

QuantiFERON - TB Gold In-Tube: FAQs. Available online at http://www.cellestis.com/. Accessed November 2008.

(Updated 2009 June 1). Testing & Diagnosis, Testing for TB Infection. CDC Tuberculosis (TB) [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/tb/topic/testing/default.htm through http://www.cdc.gov. Accessed June 2010.

Zhao, X. et. al. (2009 November 30). Is the QuantiFERON-TB Blood Assay a Good Replacement for the Tuberculin Skin Test in Tuberculosis Screening? A Pilot Study at Berkshire Medical Center. Medscape from American Journal of Clinical Pathology. 2009;132(5):678-686. [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/712651 through http://www.medscape.com. Accessed June 2010.

Herchline, T. et. al. (2010 June 9). Tuberculosis. eMedicine [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/230802-overview through http://emedicine.medscape.com. Accessed June 2010.

(Reviewed 2009 June 1). QuantiFERON®-TB Gold Test, CDC Tuberculosis (TB) Fact Sheet [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/tb/publications/factsheets/testing/QFT.htm through http://www.cdc.gov. Accessed June 2010.

(2009 October 1). CDC Immigration Requirements: Technical Instructions for Tuberculosis Screening and Treatment, CDC [On-line information]. PDF available for download at http://www.cdc.gov/immigrantrefugeehealth/pdf/tuberculosis-ti-2009.pdf through http://www.cdc.gov. Accessed June 2010.

(Reviewed 2009 June 1). Tuberculin Skin Testing. CDC, Tuberculosis (TB) Fact Sheet [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/tb/publications/factsheets/testing/skintesting.htm through http://www.cdc.gov. Accessed June 2010.

Madariaga, M. et. al. (2007 November 16). Clinical Utility of Interferon Gamma Assay in the Diagnosis of Tuberculosis Medscape from J Am Board Fam Med. 2007;20(6):540-547 [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/565794 through http://www.medscape.com. Accessed June 2010.

Mazurek, G. et. al. (2010 June 25). Updated Guidelines for Using Interferon Gamma Release Assays to Detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection — United States, 2010. CDC, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) June 25, 2010 / Vol. 59 / No. RR–5 [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/ through http://www.cdc.gov. Accessed June 2010.

Pagana, K. D. & Pagana, T. J. (© 2007). Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 8th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO. Pp 953-954.

(July 2010) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Tuberculosis, Testing for TB, Pregnancy. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/tb/topic/populations/pregnancy/default.htm through http://www.cdc.gov. Accessed March 2010.