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Theophylline and Caffeine

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Also known as: Aminophylline [Often referred to by brand names (see MedlinePlus Drug Information)]
Formal name: Theophylline; Caffeine

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NOTE: This article is based on research that utilizes the sources cited here as well as the collective experience of the Lab Tests Online Editorial Review Board. This article is periodically reviewed by the Editorial Board and may be updated as a result of the review. Any new sources cited will be added to the list and distinguished from the original sources used.

Sources Used in Current Review

Reviewer June 2015: Irene Shu, PhD, DABCC, Assistant Laboratory Director, USDTL.

Dasgupta A. (© 2012). Therapeutic Drug Monitoring: Newer Drugs and Biomarkers 1st Edition: Elsevier, Inc. Waltham, MA. P 23.

Lee M. (© 2013). Basic Skills in Interpreting Laboratory Data 5th Edition: American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. Bethesda, MD.

Baselt R.C. (© 2014). Disposition of Toxic Drugs and Chemicals in Man 10th Edition: Biomedical Publications. Seal Beach, CA. Pp 327-330, 1964-1967.

National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute. National Asthma Education and Prevention Program (2007 August 28) Expert Panel Report 3: Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Asthma. P 335.

Pesce AJ., Rashkin M. and Kotagal U. (1998). Standards of laboratory practice: theophylline and caffeine monitoring. Clin Chem, 44, 1124-1128.

(2015, April 1, Revised) Mayo Clinic. Drugs and Supplements Theophylline (oral route). Available online at http://www.mayoclinic.org/drugs-supplements/theophylline-oral-route/description/drg-20073599 through http://www.mayoclinic.org. Accessed on 6/3/2015.

(2013, December 19, Revised) Medscape. Theophylline Level. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/2090395-overview through http://emedicine.medscape.com. Accessed on 6/3/2015.

Hymel, Greg MD (2013 March 8, Revised). Medscape. Theophylline Toxicity Clinical Presentation. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/818847-clinical through http://emedicine.medscape.com. Accessed on 6/3/2015.

Sources Used in Previous Reviews

Wu, A. (2006). Tietz Clinical Guide to Laboratory Tests, Fourth Edition. Saunders Elsevier, St. Louis, Missouri. Pp 1280, 1490-1491.

Ram, F. (2006 March 8). Use of Theophylline in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Examining the Evidence. Medscape From Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/524508 through http://www.medscape.com. Accessed on 9/14/08.

Kirkland, L. and Horn, A. (2008 May 29). Toxicity, Theophylline. eMedicine [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.emedicine.com/med/TOPIC2261.HTM through http://www.emedicine.com. Accessed on 9/14/08.

(© 2008). What is Asthma? American Lung Association [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.lungusa.org/site/c.dvLUK9O0E/b.4061173/apps/s/content.asp?ct=5314727 through http://www.lungusa.org. Accessed on 9/14/08.

(2007 December). Asthma Medications Chart. American Lung Association [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.lungusa.org/site/pp.asp?c=dvLUK9O0E&b=263990 through http://www.lungusa.org. Accessed on 9/14/08.

Buck, M. (2008 June). Caffeine Citrate for the Treatment of Apnea of Prematurity. Pediatric Pharmacotherapy v14 (6) [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.healthsystem.virginia.edu/internet/pediatrics/pharma-news/ through http://www.healthsystem.virginia.edu. Accessed on 9/14/08.

Natarajan, G. et. al. (2007 May 1). Therapeutic Drug Monitoring for Caffeine in Preterm Neonates: An Unnecessary Exercise? Pediatrics Vol. 119 No. 5 May 2007, Pp. 936-940. [On-line information]. Available online at http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/abstract/119/5/936 through http://pediatrics.aappublications.org. Accessed on 9/14/08.

(2007 August 1, Reviewed). Theophylline. MedlinePlus Drug Information [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/medmaster/a681006.html. Accessed on 9/14/08.

Perez, E. (2008 January 23). Aminophylline overdose. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002572.htm. Accessed on 9/14/08.

(© 2007). American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology. Tips to Remember: Asthma and allergy medications [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.aaaai.org/patients/publicedmat/tips/asthmaallergymedications.stm through http://www.aaaai.org. Accessed on 9/14/08.

Pesce, A. et. al. (1998). Standards of laboratory practice: theophylline and caffeine monitoring. Clinical Chemistry 44:5 1124–1128 [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.clinchem.org/cgi/content/full/44/5/1124 through http://www.clinchem.org.

Klein, J. (2008 June 26, Modified). Management of Neonatal Apnea. Iowa Neonatology Handbook: Pulmonary [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.uihealthcare.com/depts/med/pediatrics/iowaneonatologyhandbook/pulmonary/managementapnea.html through http://www.uihealthcare.com. Accessed on 9/21/08.

Baselt, R.C., (2002). Disposition of Toxic Drugs and Chemicals in Man, Sixth Edition. Biomedical Publications, Foster City, CA. Caffeine, Pp. 149 – 152; Theophylline, Pp. 1013 – 1017.

Hammett-Stabler, C.A., and A. Dasgupta (2007). Therapeutic Drug Monitoring Data: A Concise Guide, Third Edition. AACC Press, Washington, D.C., Pp. 222 – 230.

Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnostics. Burtis CA, Ashwood ER, Bruns DE, eds. St. Louis: Elsevier Saunders; 2006. Appendix, Pp. 2304 and 2314.

Yew, D. and Laczek, J. (Updated 2011 May 6) Caffeine Toxicity. Medscape Reference [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/821863-overview through http://emedicine.medscape.com. Accessed February 2012.

Hymel, G. (Updated 2011 July 12). Theophylline Toxicity in Emergency Medicine. Medscape Reference [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/818847-overview through http://emedicine.medscape.com. Accessed February 2012.

(2011 February 1). How Is Asthma Treated and Controlled? National Heart Lung and Blood Institute [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/asthma/treatment.html through http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov. Accessed February 2012.

Heller, J. (Updated 2011 January 19). Aminophylline overdose. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002572.htm. Accessed February 2012.

(Updated 2012 January 6). Asthma Medicines: Long-term Control. Healthychildren.org [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.healthychildren.org/English/health-issues/conditions/allergies-asthma/pages/Asthma-Medicines-Long-term-Control.aspx through http://www.healthychildren.org. Accessed February 2012.

(© 1995–2012). Test ID: CAFF8754 Caffeine, Serum. Mayo Clinic Mayo Medical Laboratories [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.mayomedicallaboratories.com/test-catalog/Overview/8754 through http://www.mayomedicallaboratories.com. Accessed February 2012.

(© 1995–2012). Test ID: THEO8661 Theophylline, Serum. Mayo Clinic Mayo Medical Laboratories [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.mayomedicallaboratories.com/test-catalog/Overview/8661 through http://www.mayomedicallaboratories.com. Accessed February 2012.

Wise, R. (Modified 2010 January). Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. Merck Manual for Healthcare Professionals [On-line information]. Available online through http://www.merckmanuals.com. Accessed February 2012.

Pagana, K. D. & Pagana, T. J. (© 2011). Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 10th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO. Pp 367, 582.