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Second Trimester Maternal Serum Screening

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Also known as: AFP Maternal; Maternal Serum AFP; MSAFP; msAFP; Triple Screen; Triple Test; Quad Screen; Quadruple Marker Test; 4-marker Screen; Multiple Marker Test
Formal name: Maternal Serum Screen

Were you looking instead for AFP tumor markers, used to help diagnose and monitor therapy for certain cancers of the liver, testes, or ovaries?

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NOTE: This article is based on research that utilizes the sources cited here as well as the collective experience of the Lab Tests Online Editorial Review Board. This article is periodically reviewed by the Editorial Board and may be updated as a result of the review. Any new sources cited will be added to the list and distinguished from the original sources used.

Sources Used in Current Review

Trisomy 18 Foundation. What is Trisomy 18? Available online at http://www.trisomy18.org/site/PageServer?pagename=whatisT18_whatis through http://www.trisomy18.org. Accessed February 2013.

March of Dimes. Birth defects: Down syndrome. Available online at http://www.marchofdimes.com/baby/birthdefects_downsyndrome.html through http://www.marchofdimes.com. Accessed February 2013.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Folic Acid Recommendations. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/folicacid/recommendations.html through http://www.cdc.gov. Accessed February 2013.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Birth Defects, Diagnosis. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/birthdefects/diagnosis.html through http://www.cdc.gov. Accessed February 2013.

ACOG. Screening for Birth Defects. Available online at http://www.acog.org/~/media/For%20Patients/faq165.pdf?dmc=1&ts=20130213T1410405774 through http://www.acog.org. Accessed February 2013.

KidsHealth.org. What is the Multiple Marker Test? Available online at http://kidshealth.org/parent/system/medical/triple_screen.html through http://kidshealth.org. Accessed February 2013. 

MayoClinic.com. Quad screen. Available online at http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/quad-screen/MY00127 through http://www.mayoclinic.com. Accessed February 2013.

ARUP Laboratories. Maternal Serum Screen, Alpha Fetoprotein, hCG, and Estriol. Available online at http://www.aruplab.com/guides/ug/tests/0080108.jsp through http://www.aruplab.com. Accessed February 2013.

Sources Used in Previous Reviews

Thomas, Clayton L., Editor (1997). Taber's Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary. F.A. Davis Company, Philadelphia, PA [18th Edition].

Pagana, Kathleen D. & Pagana, Timothy J. (2001). Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 5th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO.

Shirley L. Welch, PhD, DABCC, FACB. Director of Chemistry, Kaiser Permanente, NW, Portland, OR.

Barkai G, Goldman B, Ries L, Chake R, Zer T, Cuckle H. Prenatal Diagnosis 13: 843-850 (1993).

Lambert-Messerlian GM, Saller DN, Tumber MB, French CA, Peterson CJ, Canick JA. Prenatal Diagnosis 18: 1061-1067 (1998).

Cuckle H, et al. Prenatal Diagnosis 10: 71-77 (1990).

(2006 January). Healthy Pregnancy, The Second Trimester. WomensHealth.gov [on-line information]. Available online at http://www.womenshealth.gov/pregnancy/pregnancy/2nd.cfm through http://www.womenshealth.gov. Accessed 2/25/07.

Barclay, L. and Lie, D. (2007 January 4). New Guidelines Recommend Universal Prenatal Screening for Down Syndrome. Medscape Medical News [on-line CME]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/550256 through http://www.medscape.com. Accessed 2/25/07.

Pagana, Kathleen D. & Pagana, Timothy J. (2007). Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 5th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO. Pp. 47-49, 416-419, 651-652.

Ashwood, E. et. al., Reviewed (2007 January). Prenatal Screening and Diagnosis. ARUP Consult [on-line information]. Available online at http://www.arupconsult.com/Topics/Perinatal_Disease/Prenatal_Screening_and_Diagnosis.html through http://www.arupconsult.com. Accessed 2/17/07.

Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnostics. Burtis CA, Ashwood ER, Bruns DE, eds. St. Louis: Elsevier Saunders; 2006, Pp 2167-2173.

(April 9, 2010) Singh D. Prenatal Diagnosis for Congenital Malformations and Genetic Disorders. Medscape article. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1200683-overview through http://emedicine.medscape.com. Accessed September 2010.

(2008 November). Maternal Blood Screening for Birth Defects. March of Dimes [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.marchofdimes.com/professionals/14332_1166.asp through http://www.marchofdimes.com. Accessed September 2010.

Clarke, W. and Dufour, D. R., Editors (2006). Contemporary Practice in Clinical Chemistry. AACC Press, Washington, DC, Pp 416-418.

(September 2009) American Pregnancy Association. Triple Screen Test: Multiple Marker Screen and Quad Screen. Available online at http://www.americanpregnancy.org/prenataltesting/ through http://www.americanpregnancy.org. Accessed September 2010.

(June 30, 2010) Mayo Clinic. Quad Screen. Available online at http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/quad-screen/MY00127 through http://www.mayoclinic.com. Accessed September 2010.

Trisomy 18 Foundation. Available online at http://www.trisomy18.org. Accessed September 2010.

Barclay, L. and Lie, D. (Reviewed 2008 January 3). New Guidelines Recommend Universal Prenatal Screening for Down Syndrome. Medscape Medical News [on-line CME]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/550256 through http://www.medscape.com. Accessed September 2010.