NOTE: This article is based on research that utilizes the sources cited here as well as the collective experience of the Lab Tests Online Editorial Review Board. This article is periodically reviewed by the Editorial Board and may be updated as a result of the review. Any new sources cited will be added to the list and distinguished from the original sources used.
Sources Used in Current Review
Mangla, A. and Gupta, S. (2015 January 14, Updated). Troponins. Medscape Drugs and Diseases. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/2073935-overview through http://emedicine.medscape.com. Accessed on 4/05/15.
Schreiber, D. and Miller, S. (2014 December 18, Updated). Cardiac Markers. Medscape Drugs and Diseases. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/811905-overview through http://emedicine.medscape.com. Accessed on 4/05/15.
Chen, M. (2014 January 17, Updated). Troponin test. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/007452.htm through http://www.nlm.nih.gov. Accessed on 4/05/15.
(2015 February 3, Updated).Warning Signs of a Heart Attack. American Heart Association. Available online at http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/HeartAttack/WarningSignsofaHeartAttack/Warning-Signs-of-a-Heart-Attack_UCM_002039_Article.jsp through http://www.heart.org. Accessed on 4/05/15.
(2014 December 5, Updated). Heart Attack Symptoms in Women. American Heart Association. Available online at http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/HeartAttack/WarningSignsofaHeartAttack/Heart-Attack-Symptoms-in-Women_UCM_436448_Article.jsp through http://www.heart.org. Accessed on 4/05/15.
(2015 March 31, Updated). Symptoms and Diagnosis of a Heart Attack. American Heart Association. Available online at http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/HeartAttack/SymptomsDiagnosisofHeartAttack/Symptoms-and-Diagnosis-of-Heart-Attack_UCM_002041_Article.jsp through http://www.heart.org. Accessed on 4/05/15.
Amsterdam, E. et. al. (2014 September 23). AHA/ACC Guideline, 2014 AHA/ACC Guideline for the Management of Patients With Non–ST-Elevation Acute Coronary Syndromes, A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. Circulation. 2014; 130: e344-e426. Available online at http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/130/25/e344 through http://circ.ahajournals.org. Accessed on 4/05/15.
Pagana, K. D., Pagana, T. J., and Pagana, T. N. (© 2015). Mosby's Diagnostic & Laboratory Test Reference 12th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO. Pp 931-932.
(April 1, 2013) Thomas S, et. al. Cardiac Troponin: Clinical Considerations for High-Sensitivity Assays. Clinical Laboratory News. Available online at https://www.aacc.org/publications/cln/articles/2013/april/troponin through https://www.aacc.org. Accessed April 2015.
Sherwood M, Newby L. High‐Sensitivity Troponin Assays: Evidence, Indications, and Reasonable Use. J Am Heart Assoc. 2014; 3: e000403. Originally published January 27, 2014. Available online at http://jaha.ahajournals.org/content/3/1/e000403.full through http://jaha.ahajournals.org. Accessed April 2015.
Sources Used in Previous Reviews
Thomas, Clayton L., Editor (1997). Taber's Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary. F.A. Davis Company, Philadelphia, PA [18th Edition].
Pagana, Kathleen D. & Pagana, Timothy J. (2001). Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 5th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO.
Adams, J. & Apple, F. (2004). New Blood Tests for Detecting Heart Disease. American Heart Association, from Circulation 2004;109:e12-e14. PDF available for download at http://circ.ahajournals.org/cgi/reprint/109/3/e12.pdf through http://circ.ahajournals.org.
Achar, S. et. al. (2005 July 1). Diagnosis of Acute Coronary Syndrome. American Family Physician. Available online at http://www.aafp.org/afp/20050701/119.html through http://www.aafp.org.
(2000). Cardiac Troponin-I Assay. UCLA Diagnostic Module-2000. PDF available for download at http://www.med.ucla.edu/champ/Troponin%20Guidelines.PDF#search='intitle:Troponin' through http://www.med.ucla.edu.
Jeremias, A. and Gibson, C. M. (2005 May 3). Narrative Review: Alternative Causes for Elevated Cardiac Troponin Levels when Acute Coronary Syndromes Are Excluded. Annals of Internal Medicine v 142 (9).
Check, W. (2001 July). Troponin triple crown: diagnosis, risk, Rx. College of American Pathologists, CAP Today. Available online at http://www.cap.org/apps/docs/cap_today/feature_stories/feat_0701.html through http://www.cap.org.
Parham, S. (2005 February). Clearing a path for new cardiac markers. College of American Pathologists, CAP Today. Available online at http://www.cap.org/apps/docs/cap_today/feature_stories/0205Cardiac.html through http://www.cap.org.
American Family Physician: Diagnosis of Acute Coronary Syndrome. Available online at http://www.aafp.org/afp/20050701/119.html through http://www.aafp.org.
Clarke, W. and Dufour, D. R., Editors (2006). Contemporary Practice in Clinical Chemistry, AACC Press, Washington, DC, p. 264.
Pagana K, Pagana T. Mosby's Manual of Diagnostic and Laboratory Tests. 3rd Edition, St. Louis: Mosby Elsevier; 2006, pp 522-525.
Mehta S, Bautista RM, Adams BD. Role of first-drawn indeterminate troponin-I levels in the Emergency Department. Int J Cardiol 2008 Mar 18.
Michielsen Etienne C H J, Wodzig Will K W H, Van Dieijen-Visser Marja P. Cardiac troponin T release after prolonged strenuous exercise. Sports medicine (Auckland, N.Z.) 2008; 38(5):425-35.
Lippi G, Schena F, Salvagno GL, Montagnana M, Gelati M, Tarperi C, Banfi G, Guidi GC. Influence of a half-marathon run on NT-proBNP and troponin T. Clin Lab. 2008; 54(7-8):251-4.
Zieve, D. (Updated 2010 March 15). Troponin Test. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/007452.htm. Accessed September 2011.
(2011 March 1). What Is a Heart Attack? National Heart Lung and Blood Institute [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/heartattack/ through http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov. Accessed September 2011.
Mayo Clinic staff (2010 November 12). Heart attack. MayoClinic.com [On-line information]. Available online http://www.mayoclinic.com/print/heart-attack/DS00094/DSECTION=all&METHOD=print through http://www.mayoclinic.com. Accessed September 2011.
Zafari, A. M. and Afonso, L. (Updated 2011 September 14). Myocardial Infarction. Medscape Reference [On-line information]. Available online http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/155919-overview through http://emedicine.medscape.com. Accessed September 2011.
Grenache, D. et. al. (Updated 2011 January). Ischemic Heart Disease. ARUP Consult [On-line information]. Available online http://www.arupconsult.com/Topics/IHD.html?client_ID=LTD#tabs=0 through http://www.arupconsult.com. Accessed September 2011.
(© 1995-2011). Unit Code 82428: Troponin T, Serum. Mayo Clinic Mayo Medical Laboratories [On-line information]. Available online http://www.mayomedicallaboratories.com/test-catalog/Overview/82428 through http://www.mayomedicallaboratories.com. Accessed September 2011.
Beavers, C. (2010 February 1). Update on Cardiac Markers—Diagnosing AMI Using Troponin. CAP NewsPath [On-line information]. Available online through http://www.cap.org. Accessed September 2011.
Pagana, K. D. & Pagana, T. J. (© 2011). Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 10th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO. Pp 978-980.
Morrow D, Antman E. Evaluation of High-Sensitivity Assays for Cardiac Troponin. Clinical Chemistry. 2009;55:5-8. Available online at http://www.clinchem.org/cgi/content/full/55/1/5 through http://www.clinchem.org. Accessed November 2011.