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Urine Protein and
Urine Protein to Creatinine Ratio

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Also known as: 24-Hour Urine Protein; Urine Total Protein; Urine Protein to Creatinine Ratio; UPCR
Formal name: Urine Protein

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NOTE: This article is based on research that utilizes the sources cited here as well as the collective experience of the Lab Tests Online Editorial Review Board. This article is periodically reviewed by the Editorial Board and may be updated as a result of the review. Any new sources cited will be added to the list and distinguished from the original sources used. To access online sources, copy and paste the URL into your browser.

Sources Used for Current Review

Lerma, E. et. al. (2015 December 10 Updated). Proteinuria. Medscape Drugs and Diseases [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/238158-overview. Accessed 4/17/16.

(2014 April). Proteinuria. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/health-topics/kidney-disease/proteinuria/Pages/facts.aspx. Accessed 4/17/16.

Martin, L. (2014 November 2 Updated). Protein urine test. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003580.htm. Accessed 4/17/16.

(© 1995–2016). Protein, Total, 24 Hour, Urine. Mayo Clinic Mayo Medical Laboratories. [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.mayomedicallaboratories.com/test-catalog/Clinical+and+Interpretive/8261. Accessed 4/17/16.

Mayo Clinic Staff (2014 May 8). Protein in Urine. Mayo Clinic [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.mayoclinic.org/symptoms/protein-in-urine/basics/definition/SYM-20050656. Accessed 4/17/16.

Cohen, E. and Lippold, C. (2016 March 8 Updated). Nephrotic Syndrome. Medscape Drugs and Diseases [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/244631-overview. Accessed 4/17/16.

Lin J, Denker BM. Azotemia and Urinary Abnormalities. In: Kasper D, Fauci A, Hauser S, Longo D, Jameson J, Loscalzo J. eds. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 19e. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2015. Available online at http://accessmedicine.mhmedical.com.libproxy1.upstate.edu/content.aspx?bookid=1130&Sectionid=79726507. Accessed April 17, 2016.

Sources Used for Previous Reviews

Thomas, Clayton L., Editor (1997). Taber's Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary. F.A. Davis Company, Philadelphia, PA [18th Edition].

Pagana, Kathleen D. & Pagana, Timothy J. (2001). Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 5th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO.

(2004 March 17, Updated) A.D.A.M. editorial, Agha, I., previously reviewed. Protein-urine. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003580.htm.

Brose, M, Updated (2003 May 8). Protein electrophoresis – urine. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003589.htm.

Carroll, M. and Temte, J. (2000 September 15). Proteinuria in Adults: A Diagnostic Approach. American Family Physician [On-line journal]. Available online at http://www.aafp.org/afp/20000915/1333.html.

Loghman-Adham, M. (1998 October 1). Evaluating Proteinuria in Children. American Family Physician [On-line journal]. Available online at http://www.aafp.org/afp/981001ap/loghman.html.

(2003 June) Proteinuria. Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse, NIH Publication No. 03-4732 [On-line information]. Available online at http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov/kudiseases/pubs/proteinuria/.

Pagana, Kathleen D. & Pagana, Timothy J. (© 2007). Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference. 8th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO. Pp 971-978.

Clarke, W. and Dufour, D. R., Editors (2006). Contemporary Practice in Clinical Chemistry. AACC Press. Washington, DC. Pp 312-317.

Wu, A. (2006). Tietz Clinical Guide to Laboratory Tests. Fourth Edition. Saunders Elsevier. St. Louis, Missouri. Pp 916-919.

Mushnick, R. (2007 October 22, Updated). Protein – urine. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003580.htm. Accessed on 9/30/08.

Mushnick, R. (2007 October 22, Updated). 24-hour urine protein. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003622.htm. Accessed on 9/30/08.

Aggarwal, N. et. al. (2008 April 22). A Prospective Comparison of Random Urine Protein-Creatinine Ratio vs 24-hour Urine Protein in Women With Preeclampsia. Medscape J Med. 2008;10(4):98 [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/571729. Accessed on 9/30/08.

(2005 November). Proteinuria: Approach to the Genitourinary Patient. Merck Manual for Healthcare Professionals [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.merck.com/mmpe/sec17/ch226/ch226j.html?qt=urine%20protein&alt=sh. Accessed on 9/30/08.

Lerma, E. and McLaughlin, K. (2007 February 5, Updated). Proteinuria. EMedicine [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.emedicine.com/med/TOPIC94.HTM. Accessed on 9/30/08.

Dugdale, D. (Updated 2011 August 20). Protein – urine. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003580.htm. Accessed October 2012.

Dugdale, D. (Updated 2011 August 21). 24-hour urine protein. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003622.htm. Accessed October 2012.

Pagana, K. D. & Pagana, T. J. (© 2011). Mosby’s Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 10th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO. Pp 1003-1004.

Clarke, W., Editor (© 2011). Contemporary Practice in Clinical Chemistry 2nd Edition: AACC Press, Washington, DC. Pp 366-368.

(© 1995-2012). Protein, Total, Urine. Mayo Clinic Mayo Medical Laboratories [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.mayomedicallaboratories.com/test-catalog/Overview/8261. Accessed October 2012.

Barclay, L. (2011 August 4). Urine Dipstick Protein Test Detects Silent Kidney Disease. Medscape Medical News [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/747567. Accessed October 2012.