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Vanillylmandelic Acid (VMA)

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Also known as: VMAU
Formal name: Vanillylmandelic Acid, urine

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NOTE: This article is based on research that utilizes the sources cited here as well as the collective experience of the Lab Tests Online Editorial Review Board. This article is periodically reviewed by the Editorial Board and may be updated as a result of the review. Any new sources cited will be added to the list and distinguished from the original sources used. To access online sources, copy and paste the URL into your browser.

Sources Used in Current Review

(© 1995-2017). Vanillylmandelic Acid (VMA), 24 hour, urine. Mayo Clinic. Available online at http://www.mayomedicallaboratories.com/test-catalog/Overview/9454. Accessed March 2017.

Lee, H. (Updated 2014 February 2014). Vanillylmandelic Acid (VMA). Medscape Reference. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/2089620-overview. Accessed March 2017.

Mayo Clinic staff (2014 May 2). Pheochromocytoma. Mayo Clinic. Available online at http://www.mayoclinic.com/print/pheochromocytoma/DS00569/DSECTION=all&METHOD=print. Accessed March 2017.

Joyner, B. (Updated 2015 March 27). Neuroblastoma. Medscape Reference. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/439263-overview. Accessed March 2017.

Martin, L. (Updated 2015 May 3). Catecholamines – urine. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003613.htm. Accessed March 2017.

Blake, M. (Updated 2016 June 30). Pheochromocytoma. Medscape Reference. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/124059-overview. Accessed March 2017.

(Updated 2017 January). Neuroblastoma. ARUP Consult. Available online at http://www.arupconsult.com/Topics/Neuroblastoma.html?client_ID=LTD#tabs=0. Accessed March 2017.

(Updated 2017 January 23). Neuroblastoma treatment (PDQ) – Health professional version. National Cancer Institute. Available online at https://www.cancer.gov/types/neuroblastoma/hp/neuroblastoma-treatment-pdq. Accessed March 2017.

Sources Used in Previous Reviews

Pagana, K. D. & Pagana, T. J. (© 2007). Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 8th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO. Pp 987-990.

Wu, A. (© 2006). Tietz Clinical Guide to Laboratory Tests, 4th Edition: Saunders Elsevier, St. Louis, MO. Pp 1110-1113.

Dugdale, D. (Updated 2009 May 09). Catecholamines – urine. MedLinePlus Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003613.htm. Accessed August 2009.

(Modified 2008 February 08). Neuroblastoma Screening (PDQ®), Health Professional Version. National Cancer Institute [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/screening/neuroblastoma/healthprofessional/allpages. Accessed August 2009.

(Revised 2008 October 21). Detailed Guide: Neuroblastoma. American Cancer Society [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.cancer.org/docroot/CRI/CRI_2_3x.asp?rnav=cridg&dt=31. Accessed August 2009.

Vuguin, P. (Updated 2009 August 27). Pheochromocytoma. eMedicine [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/988683-overview. Accessed September 2009.

Joyner, B. and Lopushnyan, N. (Updated 2007 December 4) Neuroblastoma eMedicine [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/439263-overview. Accessed September 2009.

(Updated 2009 August). Neuroblastoma. ARUP Consult [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.arupconsult.com/Topics/Neuroblastoma.html. Accessed September 2009.

Korones, D. (Revised 2009 January). Neuroblastoma: Merck Manual for Healthcare Professionals [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.merck.com/mmpe/sec19/ch285/ch285c.html?qt=VMA&alt=sh. Accessed September 2009.

Grossman, A. (Revised 2007 November). Pheochromocytoma. Merck Manual for Healthcare Professionals [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.merck.com/mmpe/sec12/ch153/ch153h.html?qt=VMA&alt=sh. Accessed September 2009.

Mayo Clinic Staff (2009 April 03). Pheochromocytoma. Mayoclinic.com [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.mayoclinic.com/print/pheochromocytoma/DS00569/DSECTION=all&METHOD=print. Accessed September 2009.

Lin, J. (Updated 2012 March 16). Vanillylmandelic Acid (VMA). Medscape Reference [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/2089620-overview. Accessed June 2013.

Frank, E. (Updated 2013 May). Neuroblastoma. ARUP Consult [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.arupconsult.com/Topics/Neuroblastoma.html?client_ID=LTD#tabs=0. Accessed June 2013.

Joyner, B. and Lopushnyan, N. (Updated 2012 October 10). Neuroblastoma. Medscape Reference [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/439263-overview. Accessed June 2013.

Mayo Clinic staff (2011 April 5). Pheochromocytoma. Mayo Clinic [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.mayoclinic.com/print/pheochromocytoma/DS00569/DSECTION=all&METHOD=print. Accessed June 2013.

Blake, M. and Sweeney, A. (Updated 2013 March 14). Pheochromocytoma. Medscape Reference [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/124059-overview. Accessed June 2013.

Dugdale, D. (Updated 2011 June 1). Catecholamines – urine. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003613.htm through http://www.nlm.nih.gov. Accessed June 2013.

Pagana, K. D. & Pagana, T. J. (© 2011). Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 10th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO. Pp 1023-1026.