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Adrenal Insufficiency and Addison Disease

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Tests: ACTH, Aldosterone and Renin, Cortisol, Electrolytes, Potassium, Glucose, BUN, Creatinine, Androstenedione
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Elsewhere On The Web
FamilyDoctor.org: Addison's Disease
Hormone Health Network: Adrenal Insufficiency
MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia: Addison Disease
MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia: Adrenoleukodystrophy
NIDDK: Adrenal Insufficiency & Addison's Disease
National Adrenal Diseases Foundation

Article Sources

NOTE: This article is based on research that utilizes the sources cited here as well as the collective experience of the Lab Tests Online Editorial Review Board. This article is periodically reviewed by the Editorial Board and may be updated as a result of the review. Any new sources cited will be added to the list and distinguished from the original sources used. To access online sources, copy and paste the URL into your browser.

Sources Used in Current Review

Bornstein S, et al. Diagnosis and Treatment of Primary Adrenal Insufficiency: An Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2016 Feb;101(2):364-89. Available online at https://academic.oup.com/jcem/article-lookup/doi/10.1210/jc.2015-1710. Accessed February 2017.

(Updated July 20, 2016) Griffing G. Addison Disease. Medscape Reference. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/116467-overview. Accessed February 2017.

(Updated February 16, 2017) Speiser P. Pediatric Adrenal Insufficiency (Addison Disease) Workup. Medscape Reference. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/919077-workup. Accessed February 2017.

Johannsson G, et al. Adrenal Insufficiency: Review of Clinical Outcomes With Current Glucocorticoid Replacement Therapy. Clin Endocrinol. 2015;82(1):2-11. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/837371.

Wiebke Arlt. the Society for Endocrinology Clinical Committee, Society For Endocrinology Endocrine Emergency Guidance: Emergency management of acute adrenal insufficiency (adrenal crisis) in adult patients. Endocr Connect 2016 vol. 5 no. 5 G1-G3. Available online at http://www.endocrineconnections.com/content/5/5/G1.long.

(2015) National Organization for Rare Disorders. Addison Disease. Available online at https://rarediseases.org/rare-diseases/addisons-disease/. Accessed March 2017.

(May 2014) National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. Adrenal Insufficiency & Addison's Disease. Available online at https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/endocrine-diseases/adrenal-insufficiency-addisons-disease. Accessed March 2017.

Sources Used in Previous Reviews

Thomas, Clayton L., Editor (1997). Taber's Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary. F.A. Davis Company, Philadelphia, PA [18th Edition].

Pagana, Kathleen D. & Pagana, Timothy J. (2001). Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 5th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO.

(2001). Addison's Disease: Diagnosis Can Be More Difficult Than Treatment. Drug Ther Perspect 17(8):12-15 [On-line journal]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/406491.

Alevritis, E et.al. (2003). South Med J 96(9): 888-890 [On-line journal]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/462327.

Graves, L., et. al. (2003 September 16). Addisonian Crisis Precipitated by Thyroxine Therapy: A Complication of Type 2 Autoimmune Polyglandular Syndrome. South Med J 96(8):824-827 [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/460531.

(2002 September 11). Addison's disease. MayoClinic.com [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.mayoclinic.com/invoke.cfm?objectid=9C76354B-0F14-4ED1-A2A3358550A16E76%22.

Corrigan, E. (1998 February 12). Addison's Disease. NIH Publication No. 90-3054 [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.niddk.nih.gov/health/endo/pubs/addison/addison.htm.

(2002 April 3, Reviewed). What is Addison disease? MedicineNet.com [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.medicinenet.com/Addison_Disease/article.htm.

Lehnert, P. (2002 November 25, Updated). Addison's Disease. WebMD [On-line information]. Available online through http://my.webmd.com.

Brown, T. (2002 March 14). Medical Encyclopedia: ACTH (Cortrosyn) stimulation test. MedlinePlus [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003696.htm.

Fish, S. (2002 May 10). Medical Encyclopedia: Acute adrenal crisis. MedlinePlus [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000357.htm.

Brown, T. (2002 September 1). Medical Encyclopedia: Addison’s disease. MedlinePlus [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000378.htm.

Corrigan, E. Adrenal Insufficiency (Secondary Addison's). NIH Publication No. 90-3054 Pituitary Network Association [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.pituitary.org/disorders/addisons.php.

Adrenal Gland Disorders. Merck Manual Home Edition [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.merck.com/mrkshared/mmanual_home/sec13/146.jsp.

Addison's Disease. Merck Manual-2nd Home Edition [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.merck.com/pubs/mmanual_home2/sec13/ch164/ch164b.htm.

Understanding Addison's Disease -- the Basics. WebMD Health [On-line information]. Available online at http://my.webmd.com/content/article/7/1680_53715.

Holt, E. (Updated 2008 March 18). Addison's Disease. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia. [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000378.htm. Accessed March 2009.

Grossman, A. (Revised 2007 November). Secondary Adrenal Insufficiency. Merck Manual for Healthcare Professionals. [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.merck.com/mmpe/sec12/ch153/ch153c.html. Accessed March 2009.

Grossman, A. (Revised 2007 November). Addison's Disease (Primary or Chronic Adrenocortical Insufficiency). Merck Manual for Healthcare Professionals. [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.merck.com/mmpe/sec12/ch153/ch153b.html?qt=addisons&alt=sh. Accessed March 2009.

Klauer, K. (Updated 2008 August 19). Adrenal Insufficiency and Adrenal Crisis. eMedicine from WebMD. [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/765753-overview. Accessed March 2009.

Mayo Clinic Staff. (2008 June 17). Addison's Disease. MayoClinic.com. [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.mayoclinic.com/print/addisons-disease/DS00361/DSECTION=all&METHOD=print. Accessed March 2009.

Shulman, D. et al. Adrenal Insufficiency: Still a Cause of Morbidity and Death in Childhood. Pediatrics Vol. 119 No. 2 February 2007, Pp. e484-e494. Available online at http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/119/2/e484. Accessed January 2011.

(Updated April 6, 2012). Adrenal insufficiency and Addison's Disease. National Institutes of Health. Available online at http://endocrine.niddk.nih.gov/pubs/addison/addison.aspx. Accessed on 19 Sept. 2012.

(Reviewed December 11, 2011). Addison's Disease. PubMed Health. Available online at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0001416/. Accessed on 19 Sept. 2012.

(July 17, 2010). Addison's Disease. Mayo Clinic. Available online at http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/addisons-disease/DS00361/DSECTION=tests-and-diagnosis. Accessed on 19 Sept. 2012.

(Reviewed March 21, 2012) WebMD. Understanding Addison’s Disease. Available online at http://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/understanding-addisons-disease-basics. Accessed on 19 Sept. 2012.

Pituitary Network Association. Adrenal Insufficiency. Available online at https://www.pituitary.org/disorders/addisons_disease.aspx. Accessed on 19 Sept. 2012.

21-hydroxylase autoantibodies. Mayo Medical Laboratories. Available online at http://www.mayomedicallaboratories.com/test-catalog/Clinical+and+Interpretive/81970. Accessed on 19 Sept. 2012.

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