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There is a protective vaccine for anthrax, but it is recommended for use only in high-risk populations, such as military personnel, some veterinarians, and people who work with Bacillus anthracis in laboratories. It is not available to the general public.

There are recommendations for giving a combination of antimicrobial drugs to people who have been exposed or thought to have been exposed to Bacillus anthracis and to people who have been diagnosed with inhalational anthrax. It is important that medical intervention begin soon after diagnosis. If a person has meningitis, a third antimicrobial may also be given. In some cases, an antitoxin will also be prescribed. Typical treatment courses are for 60 days. For the first couple of weeks, the drugs will usually be given intravenously.

For cutaneous anthrax, antimicrobial treatment is given for about 7-10 days. If there is any indication that the infection was not naturally acquired (from contaminated hides, meat, etc.), then a 60-day course of preventive antimicrobials may be prescribed.

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