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Cervical Cancer

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On This Site
Tests: Pap Smear, HPV Test
Screening: Cervical cancer (Ages 19-29), (Ages 30-49), (Ages 50 and Up)
In the News: Doctors' Group Gives Advice on Screening for Five Major Cancers (2015), Experts Offer Advice on hrHPV Testing as a Primary Screen for Cervical Cancer (2015), CDC: Too Many Women Go Unscreened for Cervical Cancer (2014), FDA Advisory Committee Recommends an HPV Test as a Primary Screen for Cervical Cancer (2014), Cervical Cancer Screening that Includes HPV Test Better than Pap Smear Alone, Study Concludes (2014), On the Horizon: Using Pap Tests to Screen for Ovarian and Endometrial Cancers (2013), CDC: Not All Women Following New Guidelines for Cervical Cancer Screening (2013), ACOG Cervical Cancer Screening Guidelines Agree with ACS, Task Force (2012)

Elsewhere On The Web
American Cancer Society: Cervical Cancer
National Cancer Institute: What You Need To Know About Cervical Cancer
National Cervical Cancer Coalition
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Genital HPV Infection - CDC Fact Sheet 
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Making Sense of Your Pap & HPV Test Results 

Article Sources

NOTE: This article is based on research that utilizes the sources cited here as well as the collective experience of the Lab Tests Online Editorial Review Board. This article is periodically reviewed by the Editorial Board and may be updated as a result of the review. Any new sources cited will be added to the list and distinguished from the original sources used.

Sources Used in Current Review

(Reviewed 2014 October 15). Cervical Cancer Overview. American Cancer Society. Available online at http://www.cancer.org/Cancer/CervicalCancer/OverviewGuide/cervical-cancer-overview-key-statistics through http://www.cancer.org. Accessed 6/16/15.

(2012 March). Screening for Cervical Cancer. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Available online at http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf/uspscerv.htm through http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org. Accessed 6/16/15.

Moyer, VA on behalf of the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. (2012 June 19). Screening for Cervical Cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement. Annals of Internal Medicine, 156(5). Available online at http://www.annals.org/content/early/2012/03/14/0003-4819-156-12-201206190-00424.full through http://www.annals.org. Accessed 6/16/15.

(Reviewed 2014 March 17). Cervical Cancer Prevention and Early Detection. American Cancer Society. Available online at http://www.cancer.org/acs/groups/cid/documents/webcontent/003167-pdf.pdf through http://www.cancer.org. Accessed 6/16/15.

(Reviewed 2015 February 19). HPV and Cancer. National Cancer Institute. Available online at http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/factsheet/Risk/HP through http://www.cancer.gov. Accessed 6/16/15.

Mayo Clinic Staff. (2015 January 31). Cervical Cancer. Mayo Clinic. Available online at http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/cervical-cancer/basics/definition/con-20030522 through http://www.mayoclinic.org. Accessed 6/16/15.

Cervical Cancer Prevention (PDQ)(2015 April 9). National Cancer Institute. Available online at http://www.cancer.gov/types/cervical/patient/cervical-prevention-pdq#section/all through http://www.cancer.gov. Accessed 6/16/15.

Boardman, C. H. (Updated 2014 August 15). Cervical Cancer. Medscape. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/253513-overview through http://emedicine.medscape.com. Accessed 6/16/15.

(Updated 2015 May 29). Cervical Cancer Treatment (PDQ). National Cancer Institute. Available online at http://www.cancer.gov/types/cervical/patient/cervical-treatment-pdq through http://www.cancer.gov. Accessed 6/16/15.

Ramirez, P.T and Gershenson, D.M. (Copyright 2015). Cervical Cancer. Merck Manual. Available online at https://www.merckmanuals.com/home/women-s-health-issues/cancers-of-the-female-reproductive-system/cervical-cancer through https://www.merckmanuals.com. Accessed 6/16/15.

(Reviewed 2014 September 9). Pap and HPV Testing. National Cancer Institute. Available online at http://www.cancer.gov/types/cervical/pap-hpv-testing-fact-sheet through http://www.cancer.gov. Accessed 6/16/15.

(Updated 2015 January 1). Human Papillomavirus Vaccine. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Available online at http://www.fda.gov/BiologicsBloodVaccines/Vaccines/ApprovedProducts/ucm172678.htm through http://www.fda.gov. Accessed 6/16/15.

(Reviewed 2014 September 17). The HPV DNA Test. American Cancer Society. Available online through http://www.cancer.org. Accessed 6/16/15.

Saslow, D. et al. (2012 March 14). American Cancer Society, American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, and American Society for Clinical Pathology screening guidelines for the prevention and early detection of cervical cancer. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians. Available online at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.3322/caac.21139/full through http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com. Accessed 6/16/15.

Jemal A, et al. (2013 January 7). Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, 1975-2009, featuring the burden and trends in human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated cancers and HPV vaccination coverage levels. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. Available online at http://jnci.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2013/01/03/jnci.djs491.full thorugh http://jnci.oxfordjournals.org. Accessed 6/16/15.

(2013 September). New Guidelines for Cervical Cancer Screening: Patient Fact Sheet. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG). Available online at http://www.acog.org/-/media/For-Patients/pfs004.pdf?dmc=1&ts=20150618T1127599323 through http://www.acog.org. Accessed 6/16/15.

(2012 March 14). American Cancer Society. New Screening Guidelines for Cervical Cancer. Available online at http://www.cancer.org/Cancer/news/News/new-screening-guidelines-for-cervical-cancer through http://www.cancer.org. Accessed 6/16/15.

Barclay, L. (2015 January 9). New Guidance Recommends HPV DNA Test for Primary Screening. Medscape Medical News. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/837832 through http://www.medscape.com. Accessed 6/16/15.

(Reviewed March 2015) World Health Organization. Human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer. Available online at http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs380/en/ through http://www.who.int. Accessed August 2015.

Sources Used in Previous Reviews
Thomas, Clayton L., Editor (1997). Taber's Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary. F.A. Davis Company, Philadelphia, PA [18th Edition].

Pagana, Kathleen D. & Pagana, Timothy J. (2001). Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 5th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO.

(2002 January 22, Updated). What you need to know about Cancer of the Cervix. National Cancer Institute [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.cancer.gov/cancer_information/doc_wyntk.aspx?viewid=1529727f-0309-4f59-aa5f-a17a761f10d9 through http://www.cancer.gov.

(2000 February 4). Cervical Cancer. Cervical Cancer Detailed Guide. American Cancer Society [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.cancer.org/eprise/main/docroot/CRI/content/CRI_2_4_7x_CRC_Cervical_Cancer_PDF through http://www.cancer.org.

CDC (2002). Cervical Cancer and Pap Test Information. The National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/cancer/nbccedp/info-cc.htm through http://www.cdc.gov.

MedlinePlus (2001 January 26, Updated). Cervical Cancer. MEDLINEplus Health Information [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000893.htm.

Nuovo, J. et. al (2001 September 1). New Tests for Cervical Cancer Screening. American Family Physician (AAFP) [On-line journal]. Available online at http://www.aafp.org/afp/20010901/780.html through http://www.aafp.org.

Canavan, T., and Doshi, N. (2000 March 1). Cervical Cancer. American Family Physician (AAFP) [On-line journal]. Available online at http://www.aafp.org/afp/20000301/1369.html through http://www.aafp.org.

Screening for Cervical Cancer. WebMD Health [On-line information]. Available online at http://my.webmd.com/content/article/1680.50756 through http://my.webmd.com. (Taken from http://odphp.osophs.dhhs.gov/pubs/GUIDECPS/text/CH09.txt)

Zoorob, R., et. al. (2001 March 15). Cancer Screening Guidelines. American Family Physician (AAFP) [On-line journal]. Available online at http://www.aafp.org/afp/20010315/1101.html through http://www.aafp.org.

(2004 Copyright). Human Papilloma Virus (HPV). American Cancer Society [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.cancer.org/docroot/cri/content/cri_2_6x_human_papilloma_virus_hpv.asp?sitearea=cri through http://www.cancer.org.

Bren, L. (2004 January February). Cervical Cancer Screening. FDA Consumer Magazine [On-line article]. Available online at http://www.fda.gov/fdac/features/2004/104_cancer.html through http://www.fda.gov.

(2004 Copyright). Human Papillomavirus (HPV). ARUP's Guide to Clinical Laboratory Testing [On-line testing information]. Available online at http://www.arup-lab.com/guides/clt/tests/clt_302a.jsp#3465668 through http://www.arup-lab.com.

(2004 May 4). Revised Cervical Cancer Screening Guidelines Require Reeducation of Women and Physicians. ACOG [On-line news release]. Available online at http://www.acog.org/from_home/publications/press_releases/nr05-04-04-1.cfm?printerFriendly=yes through http://www.acog.org.

(2004 Copyright). The High-Risk HPV Test: A Breakthrough in Cervical Cancer Screening. The HPVtest.com [On-line information from Digene Corportaion]. Available online at http://www.thehpvtest.com/factsheet.html through http://www.thehpvtest.com.

(December 2009). American College of Obstetricians and Gynecology Practice Bulletin Number 109, Cervical Cytology Screening. PDF available for download at http://journals.lww.com/greenjournal/documents/PB109_Cervical_Cytology_Screening.pdf through http://journals.lww.com. Accessed December 2009.

(April 16, 2008) American Cancer Society. Cervical Cancer Overview: How many women get cervical cancer? Available online at http://www.cancer.org/docroot/CRI/content/CRI_2_2_1X_How_many_women_get_cancer_of_the_cervix_8.asp?sitearea= through http://www.cancer.org. Accessed July 2008.

National Cancer Institute. Cancer Advances in Focus, Cervical Cancer. Available online at http://www.cancer.gov/Templates/doc.aspx?viewid=CA5EF6E5-F688-4D1C-A64E-E999866BA508 through http://www.cancer.gov. Accessed June 2008.

National Cancer Institute. What You Need to Know About Cancer of the Cervix: Risk Factors. Available online at http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/wyntk/cervix/page5 through http://www.cancer.gov. Accessed June 2008.

National Cancer Institute. What You Need to Know About Cancer of the Cervix: Screening. Available online at http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/wyntk/cervix/page6 through http://www.cancer.gov. Accessed June 2008.

National Cancer Institute. What You Need to Know About Cancer of the Cervix: Diagnosis. Available online at http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/wyntk/cervix/page8 through http://www.cancer.gov. Accessed June 2008.

(March 26, 2008) American Cancer Society. Detailed Guide: Cervical Cancer, Can Cervical Cancer Be Prevented? Available online at http://www.cancer.org/docroot/CRI/content/CRI_2_4_2X_Can_cervical_cancer_be_prevented_8.asp?sitearea= through http://www.cancer.org. Accessed June 2008.

Montalto, N (January 2008). New Evidence-Based Screening Guidelines for Pap Tests. ACOG, Healthy Woman 2008. Available online at http://www.acog.org/acog_districts/dist_notice.cfm?recno=1&bulletin=2496 through http://www.acog.org. Accessed July 2008.

(June 6, 2006) US Food and Drug Administration. FDA Licenses New Vaccine for Prevention of Cervical Cancer and Other Diseases in Females Caused by Human Papillomavirus. FDA News. Available online at http://www.fda.gov/bbs/topics/NEWS/2006/NEW01385.html through http://www.fda.gov. Accessed July 2008.

(November 21, 2007) Zeller J, Lynm C, Glass R. Carcinoma of the Cervix. JAMA. 2007;298(19):2336. PDF available for download at http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/reprint/298/19/2336.pdf through http://jama.ama-assn.org. Accessed July 2008.

(Reviewed/updated April 2008) American Academy of Family Physicians. Pap Smears. Available online at http://familydoctor.org/online/famdocen/home/women/reproductive/gynecologic/138.html through http://familydoctor.org. Accessed July 2008.

American Cancer Society. Cervical Cancer Overview. Available at http://www.cancer.org/Cancer/CervicalCancer/OverviewGuide/cervical-cancer-overview-key-statistics through http://www.cancer.org. Last reviewed February 8, 2012. Accessed March 23, 2012.

World Health Organization. Sexual and Reproductive Health: Cancer of the Cervix. Available online at http://www.who.int/reproductivehealth/topics/cancers/en/ through http://www.who.int. Accessed March 23, 2012.

Press release. FDA Approves New Indication for Gardasil to Prevent Genital Warts in Men and Boys. Available online at http://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm187003.htm through http://www.fda.gov. Issued October 16, 2009. Accessed March 23, 2009.

U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for Cervical Cancer. Release Date: March 2012. Available online at http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf/uspscerv.htm. Accessed March 2012.

Moyer, VA on behalf of the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for Cervical Cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement. Annals of Internal Medicine, March 6, 2012, 156(5). Available online at http://www.annals.org/content/early/2012/03/14/0003-4819-156-12-201206190-00424.full through http://www.annals.org. Accessed March 2012. 

American Cancer Society. New Screening Guidelines for Cervical Cancer. Article date: March 14, 2012. Available online at http://www.cancer.org/Cancer/news/News/new-screening-guidelines-for-cervical-cancer through http://www.cancer.org. Accessed March 2012.

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG). Cervical cytology screening. Washington (DC): American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG); 2009 Dec. 12 (ACOG practice bulletin; no. 109). Available online at http://www.guideline.gov/content.aspx?id=15274#Section420. Accessed March 23, 2012

National Cancer Institute. Fact Sheet. HPV and Cancer. Available online at http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/factsheet/Risk/HPV through http://www.cancer.gov. Accessed March 23, 2012.

National Cancer Institute.Treatment Options by Stage. Available online at http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/treatment/cervical/Patient/page5 through http://www.cancer.gov. Accessed March 23, 2012 .

(December 19, 2011) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HPV and Men—Fact Sheet. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/std/HPV/STDFact-HPV-and-men.htm through http://www.cdc.gov. Accessed June 2012.

Reuters. Wait longer between Pap tests, doctors say. October 22, 2012. Available online at http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/10/22/health-cancer-papsmear-idUSL3E8LM84D20121022 through http://www.reuters.com. Accessed November 2012.

ACOG. Ob-Gyns Recommend Women Wait 3 to 5 Years Between Pap Tests. October 22, 2012. Available online at http://www.acog.org/About_ACOG/News_Room/News_Releases/2012/Ob-Gyns_Recommend_Women_Wait_3_to_5_Years_Between_Pap_Tests through http://www.acog.org. Accessed November 2012.

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