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Congestive Heart Failure

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Tests: Basic Metabolic Panel, Complete Blood Count, Urinalysis, Electrolytes, BNP
Conditions: Heart Attack, Heart Disease

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Heart Rhythm Society
American Heart Association: Heart Failure
MayoClinic.com: Heart failure

Article Sources

NOTE: This article is based on research that utilizes the sources cited here as well as the collective experience of the Lab Tests Online Editorial Review Board. This article is periodically reviewed by the Editorial Board and may be updated as a result of the review. Any new sources cited will be added to the list and distinguished from the original sources used. To access online sources, copy and paste the URL into your browser.

Sources Used in Current Review

(2015 November 6 Updated). What Is Heart Failure? National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/hf. Accessed March 2016.

Dumitru, I. and Baker, M. (2016 Jan 11 Updated). Heart Failure. Medscape Drugs and Diseases [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/163062-overview. Accessed March 2016.

Friedman, E. (2015 April 1). Diuretics and Heart Failure. Medscape Drugs and Diseases [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/2145340-overview. Accessed March 2016.

Editorial staff (2014 March Updated). Heart Failure. Familydoctor.org [On-line information]. Available online at http://familydoctor.org/familydoctor/en/diseases-conditions/heart-failure.printerview.all.html. Accessed March 2016.

Mayo Clinic Staff (2015 August 18 Updated). Mayo Clinic [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/heart-failure/basics/definition/CON-20029801?p=1. Accessed March 2016.

Satou, G. and Halnon, N. (2015 May 3 Updated). Pediatric Congestive Heart Failure. Medscape Drugs and Diseases [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/2069746-overview. Accessed March 2016.

Genzen, J. et. al. (2015 November Updated). Heart Failure. ARUP Consult [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.arupconsult.com/Topics/HeartFailure.html?client_ID=LTD. Accessed March 2016.

(February 2013) Heart Failure: Diagnosis, Definition, and Risk Stratification. Mayo Medical Laboratories. Available online at http://www.mayomedicallaboratories.com/articles/features/heart-failure/index.html. Accessed March 2016.

Grandin W, et al. Galectin-3 and the Development of Heart Failure after Acute Coronary Syndrome: Pilot Experience from PROVE IT-TIMI 22. Clinical Chemistry January 2012 vol. 58 no. 1 267-273. Available online at http://www.clinchem.org/content/58/1/267.full. Accessed March 2016.

Dieplinger B, et al. Increased Soluble ST2 Predicts Long-term Mortality in Patients with Stable Coronary Artery Disease: Results from the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health Study. Clinical Chemistry March 2014 vol. 60 no. 3 530-540. Available online at http://www.clinchem.org/content/60/3/530.long. Accessed March 2016.

Sources Used in Previous Reviews

Clinical Chemistry: Principles, Procedures, Correlations. Bishop M, Duben-Engelkirk J, Fody E, eds. 4th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2000.

Clinical Chemistry: Theory, Analysis, and Correlations. Kaplan L, Pesce A, eds. 2nd ed. St. Louis: The C. V. Mosby Company; 1989.

MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia. Heart Failure. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000158.htm. Accessed October 2008.

eMedicineHealth.com. Congestive Heart Failure. Available online at http://www.emedicinehealth.com/congestive_heart_failure/page5_em.htm#Exams%20and%20Tests. Accessed October 2008.

MayoClinic.com. Heart failure: Symptoms. Available online at http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/heart-failure/DS00061/DSECTION=symptoms.

(Updated 2012 January 9). What Is Heart Failure? National Heart Lung and Blood Institute [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/hf/. Accessed April 2012.

(Updated 2012 March 29). About Heart Failure. American Heart Association [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/HeartFailure/AboutHeartFailure/About-Heart-Failure_UCM_002044_Article.jsp. Accessed April 2012.

Dumitru, I. and Baker, M. (Updated 2012 February 7). Heart Failure. Medscape Reference [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/163062-overview. Accessed April 2012.

Schreiber, D. and Nix, D. (Updated 2012 January 10). Natriuretic Peptides. Medscape Reference [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/761722-overview. Accessed April 2012.

(2011 November 16). Heart Failure. JAMA Patient Page V 306 (19) [On-line information]. Available online at http://jama.ama-assn.org/content/306/19/2175.full.pdf. Accessed April 2012. 

Mayo Clinic staff (2011 December 23) Heart failure [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.mayoclinic.com/print/heart-failure/DS00061/DSECTION=all&METHOD=print. Accessed April 2012.

Jugdutt, B. (2010 July 22). Cardiovascular Therapy, Heart Failure in the Elderly: Advances and Challenges. Medscape Today News from Cardiovasc Ther. V (5):695-715 [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/723852. Accessed April 2012.

George Blakney Ph.D , FCACB. Clinical Chemist. Royal Alexandra Hospital, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.

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