Some of the classifications of CVD include:
- Coronary heart disease (CHD) and coronary artery disease (CAD) – disease of the blood vessels supplying the heart that may lead to:
- Cerebrovascular disease – disease of the blood vessels supplying the brain that may lead to:
- Transient ischemic attacks (TIA) or "mini strokes"
- Peripheral vascular disease – disease of blood vessels supplying the arms and legs that can lead to:
- Claudication – obstructed blood flow in arteries, causing pain
- Gangrene – death of tissues in legs due to poor circulation
- Congenital heart disease – resulting from malformation of the heart structure during development (includes some valvular diseases)
- Valvular disease – defects in the structure or function of a heart valve; may be either congenital or acquired
- Cardiomyopathy – weakening of the heart muscle
- Myocarditis – inflammation or infection of the heart muscle
- Vasculitis – inflammation of blood vessels
- Blood clots that develop in the veins (thrombosis) and that detach and go to other organs (embolism)
- Atrial fibrillation – quivering or irregular heartbeat (arrhythmia) that can lead to blood clots, stroke, heart failure, and other heart-related complications
The World Health Organization estimates that cardiovascular diseases represent 30% of all global deaths. Over 80% of deaths from CVD occur in low- and middle-income countries, where there is increased exposure to risk factors and less access to preventive measures and adequate health care. As the leading cause of death worldwide, cardiovascular disease is a focus of international interest.