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Diabetes

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Screening: Diabetes - Children (2-12), Teens (13-18), Young Adults (19-29), Adults (30-49), Adults (50 and Up)
In the News: Screening, Diet and Exercise Key Factors in Task Force's New Diabetes Guidelines (2015), Task Force Updates Recommendations for Screening for Pre-Diabetes and Diabetes in Adults (2014), New Report Finds that Diabetes is on the Rise (2014), FDA Proposes Two Sets of Standards for Glucose Meters (2014)

Elsewhere On The Web
FamilyDoctor.org: Diabetes
Nemours: Diabetes Center
NIDDK: National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse
NIDDK: What I Need to Know About Gestational Diabetes
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Diabetes Public Health Resource
American Diabetes Association
UCSF Diabetes Education Online
American Diabetes Association: Diabetes Myths
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Type 1 or Type 2 Diabetes and Pregnancy
National Diabetes Education Program
Healthychildren.org: Diabetes
Healthychildren.org: Diabetes Mellitus (Type 1 Diabetes)
Healthychildren.org: Diabetes Treatment  
Acrobat-Reader_logo.gifJAMA Patient Page: Diabetes
American Diabetes Association: Be Healthy Today; Be Healthy For Life, Information for Youth and their Families, Living with Type 2 Diabetes

Article Sources

NOTE: This article is based on research that utilizes the sources cited here as well as the collective experience of the Lab Tests Online Editorial Review Board. This article is periodically reviewed by the Editorial Board and may be updated as a result of the review. Any new sources cited will be added to the list and distinguished from the original sources used.

Sources Used in Current Review

Khardori, R. (Updated 2014 September 15). Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus. Medscape Drugs & Diseases [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/117739-overview through http://emedicine.medscape.com. Accessed September 2014.

Khardori, R. (Updated 2014 September 16). Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Medscape Drugs & Diseases [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/117853-overview through http://emedicine.medscape.com. Accessed September 2014.

Patel, S. and Reddy, D. (Updated 2012 September 18). Gestational Diabetes Testing Protocol. Medscape Drugs & Diseases [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/2049380-overview through http://emedicine.medscape.com. Accessed September 2014.

Nichols, G. (2014 September 24). The Existential Question of Prediabetes. Medscape Multispecialty [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/831930 through http://www.medscape.com. Accessed September 2014.

Drobnik, J. and Schwartz, R. (Updated 2013 July 25). Dermatologic Manifestations of Hemochromatosis. Medscape Drugs & Diseases [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1104743-overview through http://emedicine.medscape.com. Accessed September 2014.

(2012 July). Prediabetes, What You Need to Know. National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse [On-line information]. Available online at http://diabetes.niddk.nih.gov/dm/pubs/prediabetes_ES/ through http://diabetes.niddk.nih.gov. Accessed September 2014.

(Updated 2014 February 12). Your Guide to Diabetes: Type 1 and Type 2. National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse [On-line information]. Available online at http://diabetes.niddk.nih.gov/dm/pubs/type1and2/index.aspx through http://diabetes.niddk.nih.gov. Accessed September 2014.

(2014 June). Causes of Diabetes. National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse [On-line information]. Available online at http://diabetes.niddk.nih.gov/dm/pubs/causes/Causes_of_Diabetes_508.pdf through http://diabetes.niddk.nih.gov. Accessed September 2014.

(Updated 2014 July 28). National Diabetes Statistics Report, 2014. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/pubs/statsreport14.htm through http://www.cdc.gov. Accessed September 2014.

(Updated 2014 September 10). Diagnosis of Diabetes and Prediabetes. National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse [On-line information]. Available online at http://diabetes.niddk.nih.gov/dm/pubs/diagnosis/ through http://diabetes.niddk.nih.gov. Accessed September 2014.

(Updated 2014 August 27). Monogenic Forms of Diabetes: Neonatal Diabetes Mellitus and Maturity-onset Diabetes of the Young. National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse [On-line information]. Available online at http://diabetes.niddk.nih.gov/dm/pubs/mody/index.aspx through http://diabetes.niddk.nih.gov. Accessed September 2014.

Parkin, C. (2013 February). LADA, the Other Diabetes, Can Be Hard to Spot. Diabetes Forecast [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.diabetesforecast.org/2013/feb/lada-the-other-diabetes-can-be-hard-to-spot.html through http://www.diabetesforecast.org. Accessed September 2014.

(2013 September). Gestational Diabetes: What You Need to Know. National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.diabetes.niddk.nih.gov/dm/pubs/gestational_ES/ through http://www.diabetes.niddk.nih.gov. Accessed September 2014.

(2014 January). Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes 2014. Diabetes Care Volume 37, Supplement 1 [On-line information]. Available online at http://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/37/Supplement_1/S14.full.pdf+html through http://care.diabetesjournals.org. Accessed September 2014.

(2014 January). Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus. Diabetes Care Volume 37, Supplement 1 [On-line information]. Available online at http://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/37/Supplement_1/S81.full.pdf+html through http://care.diabetesjournals.org. Accessed September 2014.

(2013 September). Gestational Diabetes. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.acog.org/Patients/FAQs/Gestational-Diabetes through http://www.acog.org. Accessed September 2014.

Copeland, K. et. al. (2013 January 28). Management of Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) in Children and Adolescents. Pediatrics v 131 (2) [On-line information]. Available online at http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/131/2/364.full?sid=d1840c80-287b-43ca-ac9c-68b0b1d5dfa8 through http://pediatrics.aappublications.org. Accessed September 2014.

(Reviewed 2013 August 2). Hemochromatosis. American Diabetes Association [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.diabetes.org/living-with-diabetes/complications/related-conditions/hemochromatosis.html through http://www.diabetes.org. Accessed September 2014.

Gebel, E. (2010 May). Another Kind of Diabetes: MODY, Often misdiagnosed, the disease is caused by a faulty gene. Diabetes Forecast [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.diabetesforecast.org/2010/may/another-kind-of-diabetes-mody.html through http://www.diabetesforecast.org. Accessed September 2014.

Gebel, E. (2010 May). The Other Diabetes: LADA, or Type 1.5, Latent autoimmune diabetes in adults is gradually being understood. Diabetes Forecast [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.diabetesforecast.org/2010/may/the-other-diabetes-lada-or-type-1-5.html through http://www.diabetesforecast.org. Accessed September 2014.

(2014 July). Overview of Diabetes in Children and Adolescents. From the National Diabetes Education Program [On-line information]. Available online at http://ndep.nih.gov/media/Overview-of-Diabetes-Children-508_2014.pdf through http://ndep.nih.gov. Accessed September 2014.

(October 2014) U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Draft Recommendation Statement. Abnormal Glucose and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Adults: Screening. Available online at http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/Page/Document/RecommendationStatementDraft/screening-for-abnormal-glucose-and-type-2-diabetes-mellitus through http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org. Accessed November 22, 2014.

July 25, 2013. Lisa Nainggolan. ACOG Issues New Practice Bulletin on Gestational Diabetes. Medscape News. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/808409 through http://www.medscape.com. Accessed October 29.

July 01, 2014. Brown, HL. ACOG Guidelines at a Glance: Gestational Diabetes. Available online at http://contemporaryobgyn.modernmedicine.com/contemporary-obgyn/content/tags/acog-guidelines/acog-guidelines-glance-gestational-diabetes-mellitus through http://contemporaryobgyn.modernmedicine.com. Accessed October 2014.

Soures Used in Previous Reviews

Thomas, Clayton L., Editor (1997). Taber's Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary. F.A. Davis Company, Philadelphia, PA [18th Edition].

Pagana, Kathleen D. & Pagana, Timothy J. (2001). Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 5th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO.

(1995-2004). Diabetes Mellitus. The Merck Manual of Medical Information-Second Home Edition [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.merck.com/mmhe/sec13/ch165/ch165a.html?qt=Diabetes&alt=sh through http://www.merck.com.

(2005 January). Diagnosis of Diabetes. National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse, NIH Publication No. 05-4642 [On-line information]. Available online at http://diabetes.niddk.nih.gov/dm/pubs/diagnosis/index.htm through http://diabetes.niddk.nih.gov. Reaccessed 2/20/08.

All About Diabetes. American Diabetes Association [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.diabetes.org/about-diabetes.jsp through http://www.diabetes.org. Reaccessed 2/20/08.

National Diabetes Fact Sheet. Centers for Disease Control [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/pubs/factsheet.htm through http://www.cdc.gov.

Jonnalagadda, S. (2004 February 19). Serum ketones. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003498.htm.

Magee, C. (2005 December 9, Updated). Ketones – urine. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003585.htm.

(2003). Ketone testing. National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry, Laboratory Medicine Practice Guidelines [On-line information]. PDF available for download at http://www.nacb.org/lmpg/diabetes/5_diabetes_keytone.pdf#search='%2C%20ketone%20diabetes' through http://www.nacb.org.

National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse: National Diabetes Statistics (2005). Available online at http://diabetes.niddk.nih.gov/dm/pubs/statistics/ through http://diabetes.niddk.nih.gov.

U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Recommendations and Rationale: Screening for Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (February 2003). Available online at http://www.ahrq.gov/clinic/3rduspstf/gdm/gdmrr.htm through http://www.ahrq.gov.

American Diabetes Association. Executive summary: standards of medical care in diabetes—2010. Jan 2010. Diabetes Care 33: S4-S10.

(January 2010) The Endocrine Society Statement on the use of A1c for Diabetes Diagnosis and Risk Estimation. PDF available for download at http://www.endo-society.org/advocacy/upload/TES-Statement-on-A1C-Use.pdf through http://www.endo-society.org. Accessed January 2010.

(Updated 2011 May 5). Basics about Diabetes. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/consumer/learn.htm through http://www.cdc.gov. Accessed May 2011.

(2011). National Diabetes Fact Sheet, 2011. CDC [On-line information]. PDF available for download at http://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/pubs/pdf/ndfs_2011.pdf through http://www.cdc.gov. Accessed May 2011.

(Updated 2010 October). Type 2 Diabetes Fact Sheet. National Institutes of Health [On-line information]. Available online at http://report.nih.gov/NIHfactsheets/Pdfs/Type2Diabetes(NIDDK).pdf through http://report.nih.gov. Accessed May 2011.

Khardori, R. (Updated 2011 May 19). Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Medscape Reference [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/117853-overview through http://emedicine.medscape.com. Accessed May 2011.

Moore, T. (Updated 2011 April 13). Diabetes Mellitus and Pregnancy. Medscape Reference [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/127547-overview through http://emedicine.medscape.com. Accessed May 2011.

Mayo Clinic Staff (2011 March 9). Diabetes. MayoClinic.com [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/diabetes/DS01121/METHOD=print through http://www.mayoclinic.com. Accessed May 2011.

Grenache, D. (Updated 2011 April). Diabetes Mellitus. ARUP Consult [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.arupconsult.com/Topics/DiabetesMellitus.html#tabs=0 through http://www.arupconsult.com. Accessed May 2011.

Kerr, M. (Updated 2009 June 23) ADA 2009: New Blood Test Bridges Time Gap Between Serum Glucose and Hemoglobin A1c. Medscape Medical News [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/704358 through http://www.medscape.com. Accessed May 2011.

American Diabetes Association. Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes—2011. Diabetes Care January 2011 34:S11-S61. Available online at http://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/34/Supplement_1/S11.full through http://care.diabetesjournals.org

Metzger BE, et al. International association of diabetes and pregnancy study groups recommendations on the diagnosis and classification of hyperglycemia in pregnancy. Diabetes Care 2010; 33: 676-82.

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