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Endocrine System and Syndromes

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Summary Table of Endocrine Glands

Summary Table of Endocrine Glands

This table includes a listing of endocrine glands, including the hormones they produce and their function.
Endocrine GlandLocation/ DescriptionHormone(s) Gland Produce(s)Hormone Function
Hypothalamus Lower middle of the brain; communicates with both nervous and endocrine systems
Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) Stimulates growth hormone production by the pituitary
Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) Stimulates TSH production in the pituitary
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) Stimulates ACTH production by the pituitary
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) Stimulates LH and FSH production by the pituitary
Prolactin inhibitory hormone (PIH, dopamine) Inhibits prolactin production
Oxytocin; produced by the hypothalamus; stored and secreted by the pituitary Uterine contraction during labor
Arginine vasopressin (AVP), also called antidiurectic hormone (ADH); produced by the hypothalamus; stored and secreted by the pituitary Water balance
Pituitary Below hypothalamus, behind sinus cavity Prolactin Milk production (milk production not related to pregnancy is called galactorrhea and is usually due to high prolactin)
Growth hormone (GH) Stimulates childhood growth, cell production, helps maintain muscle and bone mass in adults
ACTH Stimulates cortisol production by the adrenal glands
TSH Stimulates thyroid hormone production
LH, FSH Regulation of testosterone and estrogen, fertility
Thyroid Butterfly-shaped; lies flat against windpipe in the throat T4 (thyroxine)

T3 (triiodothyronine)
Help regulate the rate of metabolism
Calcitonin         Helps regulate bone status, blood calcium
Parathyroid 4 tiny glands located behind, next to, or below the thyroid Parathyroid hormone (PTH)        Regulates blood calcium
Adrenal    2 triangular organs, on top of each kidney Epinephrine (adrenaline)
Norepinephrine (Catecholamines)
Blood pressure regulation, stress reaction, heart rate
Aldosterone    Salt, water balance
Cortisol Stress reaction
DHEA-S Body hair development at puberty
Ovaries (females only) 2, located in the pelvis Estrogen

Female sexual characteristics
Testicles (males only) 2, located in the groin Testosterone Male sexual characteristics
Pancreas Large, gourd-shaped gland, located behind the stomach Insulin
Glucose regulation   
Pineal Lower side of the brain Melatonin Not well understood;
Helps control sleep patterns, affects reproduction

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