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Fungal Infections

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Tests: Fungal Tests, AFB Testing, CSF Analysis, Susceptibility Testing, Gram Stain, Body Fluid Analysis
Conditions: Wound and Skin Infections, Tuberculosis, Nontuberculous Mycobacteria, Lung Diseases, Travelers' Diseases, Meningitis and Encephalitis, Pneumonia, Vaginitis and Vaginosis

Elsewhere On The Web
CDC: Fungal Diseases
Womenshealth.gov: Vaginal yeast infection
MedlinePlus: Fungal Infections
American Thoracic Society Patient Information:
Blastomycosis
Candida Infection of the Bloodstream– Candidemia
Coccidioidomycosis
Histoplasmosis

Article Sources

NOTE: This article is based on research that utilizes the sources cited here as well as the collective experience of the Lab Tests Online Editorial Review Board. This article is periodically reviewed by the Editorial Board and may be updated as a result of the review. Any new sources cited will be added to the list and distinguished from the original sources used. To access online sources, copy and paste the URL into your browser.

Sources Used in Current Review

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (December 2, 2014 updated). Types of Fungal Diseases. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/fungal/diseases/index.html. Accessed August 27, 2016.

Blackwell M. The Fungi: 1, 2, 3 ... 5.1 Million Species? American Journal of Botany. 2011; 98(3): 426–438.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (June 12, 2015 updated.) Candidiasis. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/fungal/diseases/candidiasis/index.html. Accessed August 27, 2016.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (February 13, 2014 updated.) Genital/Vulvovagial Candidiasis (VVC). Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/fungal/diseases/candidiasis/genital/index.html. Accessed August 27, 2016.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (June 12, 2015 updated). Invasive Candidiasis. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/fungal/diseases/candidiasis/invasive/index.html. Accessed August 27, 2016.

Calandra Delaloye J, Thierry C. Invasive Candidiasis As a Cause of Sepsis in the Critically Ill Patient. Virulence. 2014; 5:1, 161–169.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (December 4, 2015 updated.) Ringworm. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/fungal/diseases/ringworm/index.html. Accessed August 27, 2016.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (February 13, 2014 updated.) Sporotrichosis. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/fungal/diseases/sporotrichosis/index.html. Accessed August 27, 2016.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (November 13, 2015 updated.) Aspergillosis. Available online at: http://www.cdc.gov/fungal/diseases/aspergillosis/index.html. Accessed August 27, 2016.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (December 28, 2015 updated.) Blastomycosis. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/fungal/diseases/blastomycosis/index.html. Accessed August 27, 2016.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (June 29, 2015 updated). Valley Fever (Coccidioidomycosis). Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/fungal/diseases/coccidioidomycosis/index.html. Accessed August 27, 2016.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (November 28, 2015 updated). C. neoformans Infection. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/fungal/diseases/cryptococcosis-neoformans/index.html. Accessed August 27, 2016.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (December 16, 2015 updated). C. gatti Infection. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/fungal/diseases/cryptococcosis-gattii/index.html. Accessed August 27, 2016.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (November 21, 2015 updated.) Histoplasmosis. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/fungal/diseases/histoplasmosis/index.html. Accessed August 27, 2016.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (February 13, 2014 updated.) Pneumocystis Pneumonia. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/fungal/diseases/pneumocystis-pneumonia/index.html. Accessed August 27, 2-16.

Sources Used in Previous Reviews

Wu, A. (2006). Tietz Clinical Guide to Laboratory Tests, Fourth Edition. Saunders Elsevier, St. Louis, Missouri. Pp 1569, 1570, 1532, 1616.

Forbes, B. et. al. (© 2007). Bailey & Scott's Diagnostic Microbiology, Twelfth Edition: Mosby Elsevier Press, St. Louis, Missouri. Pp 629-716.

(2008 March 27, Modified). Candidiasis. CDC, Division of Foodborne, Bacterial, and Mycotic Diseases [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/nczved/dfbmd/disease_listing/candidiasis_gi.html. Accessed on 8-14-08.

(2008 March 27, Modified). Aspergillosis (Aspergillus). CDC, Division of Foodborne, Bacterial, and Mycotic Diseases [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/nczved/dfbmd/disease_listing/aspergillosis_gi.html. Accessed on 8-14-08.

(2008 March 27, Modified). Blastomycosis. CDC, Division of Foodborne, Bacterial, and Mycotic Diseases [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/nczved/dfbmd/disease_listing/blastomycosis_gi.html. Accessed on 8-14-08.

(2008 March 27, Modified). Coccidioidomycosis. CDC, Division of Foodborne, Bacterial, and Mycotic Diseases [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/nczved/dfbmd/disease_listing/coccidioidomycosis_gi.html. Accessed on 8-14-08.

(2008 March 27, Modified). Cryptococcus. CDC, Division of Foodborne, Bacterial, and Mycotic Diseases [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/nczved/dfbmd/disease_listing/cryptococcus_gi.html. Accessed on 8-14-08.

(2008 March 27, Modified). Dermatophytes (Ringworm). CDC, Division of Foodborne, Bacterial, and Mycotic Diseases [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/nczved/dfbmd/disease_listing/dermatophytes_gi.html. Accessed on 8-14-08.

(2008 March 27, Modified). Histoplasmosis. CDC, Division of Foodborne, Bacterial, and Mycotic Diseases [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/nczved/dfbmd/disease_listing/histoplasmosis_gi.html. Accessed on 8-14-08.

(2008 March 27, Modified). Sporotrichosis. CDC, Division of Foodborne, Bacterial, and Mycotic Diseases [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/nczved/dfbmd/disease_listing/sporotrichosis_gi.html. Accessed on 8-14-08.

Lehrer, M. (2006 October 26, Updated). Fungal nail infection. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001330.htm. Accessed on 8-14-08.

Lehrer, M. (2006 October 16, Updated). Tinea Corporis. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000877.htm. Accessed on 8-14-08.

Berman, K. (2007 April 12, Updated). Athlete's Foot. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000875.htm. Accessed on 8-14-08.

Lehrer, M. (2006 October 16, Updated). Tinea capitis. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000878.htm. Accessed on 8-14-08.

Berman, K. (2007 April 12, Updated). Jock itch. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000876.htm. Accessed on 8-14-08.

Lehrer, M. (2007 April 12, Updated). Skin lesion KOH exam. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003761.htm. Accessed on 8-14-08.

Berman, K. (2006 October 13, Updated). Wood's lamp. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003386.htm. Accessed on 8-14-08.

Stokowski, L. (2007 November 20). Fungal Skin and Nail Infections: Practical Advice for Advanced Practice Clinicians. Medscape Nursing Perspectives [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/566002. Accessed on 8-16-08.

Pappas, P. (2007 May 31). Invasive Fungal Infections: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prophylaxis CME/CE. Medscape [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/556373. Accessed on 8-13-08.

(2005 November, Revision). Fungi. The Merck Manual for Healthcare Professionals [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.merck.com/mmpe/sec14/ch180/ch180a.html?qt=fungal%20infection&alt=sh#sec14-ch180-ch180a-1521. Accessed on 8-13-08.

(2005 November, Revision). Fungal Skin Infections. The Merck Manual for Healthcare Professionals [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.merck.com/mmpe/sec10/ch120/ch120a.html. Accessed on 8-13-08.

(© 2006-2008). Yeast-Associated Syndromes. ARUP Consult [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.arupconsult.com/Topics/InfectiousDz/Fungi/Yeasts.html. Accessed on 8-16-08.

(© 2006-2008). Mold-Associated Syndromes. ARUP Consult [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.arupconsult.com/Topics/InfectiousDz/Fungi/Molds.html. Accessed on 8-16-08.

Ellis, D. (2008 February 7, Modified). Calcofluor White with 10% KOH. Mycology Online [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.mycology.adelaide.edu.au/Laboratory_Methods/Microscopy_Techniques_and_Stains/calcofluor.html. Accessed on 8-16-08.

(March 2011) Mandanas R. Fungal Pneumonia. Medscape Reference Article. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/300341-overview. Accessed October 2012.

(May 21 2012) Hidalgo J. Candidiasis. Medscape Reference. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/213853-overview. Accessed October 2012.

(Aug 26 2011) Fayyaz J. Histoplasmosis. Medscape Reference. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/299054-overview. Accessed October 2012.

(Dec 8 2011) Hospinthal D. Coccidioidomycosis. Medscape Reference. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/215978-overview. Accessed October 2012.

(October 1, 2012) King J. Cryptococcocus. Medscape Reference. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/215354-overview. Accessed October 2012.

American Thoracic Society. Fungal Lung Disease. PDF available for download at http://www.thoracic.org/education/breathing-in-america/resources/chapter-9-fungal-lung-disease.pdf. Accessed October 2012.

(January 5, 2012) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Fungal Infections. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/fungal/. Accessed October 2012.

(March 9, 2011) Rashid M. Tinea in Emergency Medicine. Medscape Reference. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/787217-overview. Accessed October 2012.

(Feb 8 2011) Varky B. Blastomycosis. Medscape Reference. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/296870-overview. Accessed October 2012.

(Updated August 29, 2011) Vyas J. Valley Fever. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001322.htm. Accessed October 2012.

(Updated September 15, 2010) Dugdale D. Skin lesion of coccidioidomycosis. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000866.htm. Accessed October 2012.

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