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Heart Attack and Acute Coronary Syndrome

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Tests: Cardiac Risk Assessment, Troponin, CK-MB, Cardiac Biomarkers
Conditions: Heart Disease, Congestive Heart Failure, Angina, Stroke, Hypertension
In the News: FDA Clears First Highly Sensitive Troponin Blood Test to Help Diagnose Heart Attacks (2017), Is it a Heart Attack? Study Finds Improved Blood Test May Speed Up Discharge for Some ER Patients with Chest Pain (2015), New Drugs Approved for People with Hard to Treat High Cholesterol (2015)

Elsewhere On The Web
Heart Rhythm Society
American Academy of Family Physicians: Heart Attack
National Heart, Lung, Blood Institute: What Is a Heart Attack?
American Heart Association: Acute Coronary Syndrome
National Heart, Lung, Blood Institute: Learn What a Heart Attack Feels Like

Article Sources

NOTE: This article is based on research that utilizes the sources cited here as well as the collective experience of the Lab Tests Online Editorial Review Board. This article is periodically reviewed by the Editorial Board and may be updated as a result of the review. Any new sources cited will be added to the list and distinguished from the original sources used. To access online sources, copy and paste the URL into your browser.

Sources Used in Current Review

Zafari, A.M. et. al. (2015 September 15, Updated). Myocardial Infarction. Medscape Drugs and Diseases [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/155919-overview. Accessed on 11/01/15.

(2015 August 14). About Heart Attacks. American Heart Association [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/HeartAttack/AboutHeartAttacks/About-Heart-Attacks_UCM_002038_Article.jsp. Accessed on 11/01/15.

(2014 December 17). Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics – At-a-Glance. American Health Association [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.heart.org/idc/groups/ahamah-public/@wcm/@sop/@smd/documents/downloadable/ucm_470704.pdf. Accessed on 11/01/15.

(2013 December 17, Updated). What Is a Heart Attack? National Heart Lung and Blood Institute [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/heartattack. Accessed on 11/01/15.

Mayo Clinic Staff (2014 November 15). Heart Attack. Mayo Clinic [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/heart-attack/basics/risk-factors/con-20019520. Accessed on 11/01/15.

Warnica, J. (2013 May, Revised). Acute Coronary Syndromes (ACS). Merck Manual Professional Version [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/cardiovascular-disorders/coronary-artery-disease/acute-coronary-syndromes-acs. Accessed on 11/01/15.

Lehman, C. and Straseski, J. (2015 September, Updated). Ischemic Heart Disease ARUP Consult [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.arupconsult.com/Topics/IHD.html?client_ID=LTD. Accessed on 11/01/15.

Sources Used in Previous Reviews
Thomas, Clayton L., Editor (1997). Taber's Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary. F.A. Davis Company, Philadelphia, PA [18th Edition].

Pagana, Kathleen D. & Pagana, Timothy J. (2001). Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 5th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO.

National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. National Heart Attack Alert Program: Testing for a Heart Attack. Available online at http://rover.nhlbi.nih.gov/actintime/taha/taha.htm. Accessed September 2008.

National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. National Heart Attack Alert Program: How is a Heart Attack Treated? Available online at http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/dci/Diseases/HeartAttack/HeartAttack_Treatments.html. Accessed September 2008.

American Heart Association: What is Acute Coronary Syndrome? Available online through http://www.americanheart.org. Accessed July 2008.

Achar, SA et al. Diagnosis of Acute Coronary Syndrome. American Family Physician. July 1, 2005. Available online at http://www.aafp.org/afp/20050701/119.html. Accessed October 2008.

Zafari, A. et. al. (Updated 2012 January 9). Myocardial Infarction. Medscape Reference [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/155919-overview. Accessed January 2012.

(Updated 2011 June 30). Acute Coronary Syndrome. American Heart Association [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/HeartAttack/AboutHeartAttacks/Acute-Coronary-Syndrome_UCM_428752_Article.jsp. Accessed January 2012.

Nainggolan, L. (2012 January 11) Inactivity Is a Universal Risk Factor for Heart Attack. Medscape News Today from Heartwire [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/756768. Accessed January 2012.

(Updated 2011 March 1). What is a Heart Attack? National Heart Lung and Blood Institute [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/heartattack/. Accessed January 2012.

Burke, A. (Updated 2011 April 6). Pathology of Acute Myocardial Infarction. Medscape Reference [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1960472-overview. Accessed January 2012.

Grenache, D. et. al. (Updated 2011 January). Ischemic Heart Disease – IHD. ARUP Consult [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.arupconsult.com/Topics/IHD.html. Accessed January 2012.

Mayo Clinic Staff (2011 November 17). Heart attack. MayoClinic.com [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.mayoclinic.com/print/heart-attack/DS00094/DSECTION=all&METHOD=print. Accessed January 2012.

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