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Hepatitis

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Tests: Hepatitis A Testing, Hepatitis B Testing, Hepatitis C Testing, Acute Viral Hepatitis Panel, Liver Panel, AST, ALP, ALT, Albumin, Bilirubin, PT, Total Protein, Autoantibodies, ANA, SMA, Anti-LKM-1, Iron Tests, Copper, Alpha-1 Antitrypsin, Acetaminophen, Ethanol, Drug Abuse Testing, Emergency and Overdose Drug Testing, Comprehensive Metabolic Panel
Conditions: Jaundice, Alcoholism, Liver Disease, Metabolic Syndrome, Insulin Resistance, Autoimmune Disorders, Cirrhosis, Pregnancy, Wilson Disease, Hemochromatosis
Screening: Hepatitis B: Newborns, Teens, Young Adults, Adults, Adults 50 and Up; Hepatitis C: Adults 50 and Up
In the News: Test for Hepatitis B Co-infection before Treating Hepatitis C with Certain Drugs, Experts Warn (2016), Screen All Adults for Hepatitis C, Say Researchers (2016), Hepatitis C Follow-Up Testing Recommended for All Positive Screening Tests (2013), Federal Task Force Now Advises More Screening for HIV and Hepatitis C (2013)

Elsewhere On The Web
NIDDK: Liver Disease
American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases: Patient Information
CDC, National Center for Infectious Diseases: Viral Hepatitis
Wilson Disease Association
Mayo Clinic: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
American Hemachromatosis Society: Hemochromatosis: How to Get Tested
UCSF Medical Center: Toxic Hepatitis
National Human Genome Research Institute: Learning about Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency

Article Sources

NOTE: This article is based on research that utilizes the sources cited here as well as the collective experience of the Lab Tests Online Editorial Review Board. This article is periodically reviewed by the Editorial Board and may be updated as a result of the review. Any new sources cited will be added to the list and distinguished from the original sources used. To access online sources, copy and paste the URL into your browser.

Sources Used in Current Review

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (27 August 2015 updated). Hepatitis A FAQs for the Health Professionals. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/hepatitis/hav/havfaq.htm#general. Accessed April 24, 2016.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (16 December 2015 updated). Hepatitis B FAQs for the Health Professionals. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/hepatitis/hbv/hbvfaq.htm. Accessed April 24, 2016.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (31 May 2015 updated). Hepatitis A FAQs for the Health Professionals. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/hepatitis/hcv/index.htm. Accessed April 25, 2016.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (8 December 2015 updated). Hepatitis D FAQs for the Health Professionals. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/hepatitis/hdv/index.htm. Accessed April 25, 2016.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (28 August 2015 updated). Hepatitis E FAQs for the Health Professionals. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/hepatitis/hev/index.htm. Accessed April 25, 2016.

Pagana, Kathleen D., Pagana, Timothy J., and Pagana, Theresa N. (© 2015). Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference. 12th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO. Pp 21-22, 29-30,452-453.

U.S. Food and Drug Administration (1 May 2015 updated. ) Hepatitis B and C Treatments. Available online at http://www.fda.gov/forpatients/illness/hepatitisbc/ucm408658.htm. Accessed April 25, 2016.

National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. LiverTox. Available online at http://livertox.nih.gov/intro.html. Accessed April 25, 2016.

Mayo Clinic (1 June 2013). Toxic Hepatitis (1 June 2013 updated). Avalable online at http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/toxic-hepatitis/basics/definition/con-20026939. Accessed April 26, 2016.

University of Maryland School of Medicine Institute of Human Virology. Drug-induced Hepatitis Information Guide. Available online at http://www.ihv.org/education/drug_hep.html. Accessed April 26, 2016.

University of Rochester Medical Center. Drug-induced Hepatitis. Available online at https://www.urmc.rochester.edu/Encyclopedia/Content.aspx?ContentTypeID=85&ContentID=P00668. Accessed April 26, 2016.

U.S. National Library of Medicine MedlinePlus (5 April 2016 updated). Drug-induced Hepatitis. Available online at https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000226.htm. Accessed April 26, 2016.

American Liver Foundation (14 January 2015 updated). Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency. Available online at http://www.liverfoundation.org/abouttheliver/info/alphaone/. Accessed April 27, 2016.

U.S. National Library of Medicine Genetics Home Reference (26 April 2016 published). Alpha-1-antitrypsin-deficiency. Available online at https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/alpha-1-antitrypsin-deficiency. Accessed April 26, 2016.

American Liver Foundation (14 January 2015 updated). Wilson Disease. Available online at http://www.liverfoundation.org/abouttheliver/info/wilson/. Accessed April 27, 2016.

American Liver Foundation (14 January 2015 updated). Autoimmune Hepatitis. Available online at http://www.liverfoundation.org/abouttheliver/info/aihep/. Accessed April 27, 2016.

Mayo Clinic (30 December 2015). Autoimmune Hepatitis. Available online at http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/autoimmune-hepatitis/diagnosis-treatment/diagnosis/dxc-20167547. Accessed April 28, 2016.

National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (March 2014). Autoimmune Hepatitis. Available online at http://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/health-topics/liver-disease/autoimmune-hepatitis/Pages/facts.aspx. Accessed April 28, 2016.

American Liver Foundation (14 January 2015 updated). Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease. Available online at http://www.liverfoundation.org/abouttheliver/info/nafld/. Accessed April 28, 2016.

National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (May 2014). Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis. Available online at http://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/health-topics/liver-disease/nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis/Pages/facts.aspx. Accessed April 28, 2016.

NIDDK. Autoimmune Hepatitis. Available online at http://livertox.nih.gov/Phenotypes_auto.html.

Canadian Liver Foundation. Toxic Hepatitis. Available online at http://www.liver.ca/liver-disease/types/toxic-hepatitis.aspx.

Sources Used in Previous Reviews

Thomas, Clayton L., Editor (1997). Taber's Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary. F.A. Davis Company, Philadelphia, PA [18th Edition]. Pp 884-886.

Pagana, Kathleen D. & Pagana, Timothy J. (2001). Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 5th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO. Pp 477-480.

(2005 January 15, Reviewed). Viral Hepatitis B Fact Sheet. CDC, National Center for Infectious Diseases [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/diseases/hepatitis/b/fact.htm.

(© 2005) Hepatitis and Liver Disease in the United States. American Liver Foundation [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.liverfoundation.org/db/articles/1008.

(© 2002-2003) Hepatitis A Factsheet. American Liver Foundation [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.liverfoundation.org/db/articles/1061.

(© 2002-2003) What is Autoimmune Hepatitis? American Liver Foundation [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.liverfoundation.org/db/articles/1011.

(© 2002-2003) Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury. American Liver Foundation [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.liverfoundation.org/db/articles/1056.

(2005 January 15, reviewed). Interpretation of the Hepatitis B Panel CDC. National Center for Infectious Diseases [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/diseases/hepatitis/b/Bserology.htm.

(2005 January 15, reviewed). Hepatitis C Fact Sheet, CDC. National Center for Infectious Diseases [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/diseases/hepatitis/c/fact.htm.

(© 2005). Hepatitis B Virus (HBV). ARUP's Guide to Clinical Laboratory Testing [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.arup-lab.com/guides/clt/tests/clt_291a.jsp#1150957.

Hart, J. (2003 October 3). Hepatitis. MedlinePlus Health Information Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001154.htm.

(© 2005). ARUP Hepatitis A Virus (HAV). ARUP's Guide to Clinical Laboratory Testing [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.arup-lab.com/guides/clt/tests/clt_290a.jsp#1150939.

Owens, T. (2005 February 9, Updated). Ceruloplasmin. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003662.htm.

(© 2005). Ceruloplasmin. ARUP's Guide to Clinical Laboratory Testing [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.aruplab.com/guides/clt/tests/clt_a162.jsp.

(© 2002-2006). Ceruloplasmin (Cp) TECHNICAL UPDATE. Interpath Laboratory [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.interpathlab.com/TechnicalUpdates/ceruloplasmin.htm.

Twomey, P. et. al. (2005). Relationship between Serum Copper, Ceruloplasmin, and Non–Ceruloplasmin-Bound Copper in Routine Clinical Practice. Clinical Chemistry. 2005;51:1558-1559 [On-line journal]. Available online at http://www.clinchem.org/cgi/content/full/51/8/1558.

About Wilson's Disease. Wilson's Disease Association [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.wilsonsdisease.org/about%20wilsons%20disease.html.

(© 2005) Wilson Disease Screening Panel, Serum. ARUP's User's Guide [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.arup-lab.com/guides/ug/tests/0020598.jsp.

(© 2005) Free Copper (Direct) in Serum Ultrafiltrate. ARUP's Guide to Clinical Laboratory Testing [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.arup-lab.com/guides/clt/tests/clt_a278.jsp#5461569.

(© 2005) Copper and Copper-Ceruloplasmin Index. ARUP's Guide to Clinical Laboratory Testing [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.arup-lab.com/guides/clt/tests/clt_alp9.jsp#1155978.

(June 13, 2008) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Hepatitis A. Available online at http://cdc.gov/hepatitis/HAV/HAVfaq.htm#general. Accessed September 2009.

(July 8, 2008) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Hepatitis B. Available online at http://cdc.gov/hepatitis/HBV/HBVfaq.htm#overview. Accessed September 2009.

(July 21, 2008) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Hepatitis C, FAQs for Health Professionals. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/hepatitis/HCV/HCVfaq.htm#section1. Accessed September 2009.

(December 17, 2008) Mayo Clinic. Toxic hepatitis. Available online at http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/toxic-hepatitis/DS00811. Accessed September 2009.

(Updated May 8, 2007) UCSF Medical Center. Toxic Hepatitis. Available online at http://www.ucsfhealth.org/adult/medical_services/liver/toxic/conditions/toxichep/treatments.html. Accessed September 2009.

(June 4, 2009) Mehta, N, et al. Drug-Induced Hepatotoxicity. eMedicine. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/169814-overview. Accessed September 2009.

(September 28, 2007) American Liver Foundation. Alpha-1 Antitrypsin. Available online at http://www.liverfoundation.org/education/info/alphaone/. Accessed September 2009.

(September 28, 2007) American Liver Foundation. Wilson's Disease. Available online at http://www.liverfoundation.org/education/info/wilson/. Accessed September 2009.

(March 14, 2007) American Liver Foundation. Hemachromatosis. Available online at http://www.liverfoundation.org/education/info/hemochromatosis/. Accessed September 2009.

National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Alcohol and the Liver. No. 19 PH 329 January 1993. Available online at http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/aa19.htm. Accessed November 2009.

(September 28, 2007) American Liver Foundation. Alcohol-induce Liver Disease. Available online at http://www.liverfoundation.org/education/info/alcohol/. Accessed June 2009.

(September 12, 2008) Mayoclinic.com. Hemachromatosis. Available online at http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/hemochromatosis/DS00455. Accessed September 2009.

(February 19, 2009) Mayoclinic.com. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Available online at http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease/DS00577. Accessed October 2009.

(September 27, 2007) American Liver Foundation. Fatty Liver. Available online at http://www.liverfoundation.org/education/info/fattyliver/. Accessed October 2009.

(February 28, 2007) McAvoy N, et al. Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Natural History, Pathogenisis and Treatment. Medscape Today from British Journal of Diabetes and Vascular Disease. 2006;6(6):251-260. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/552003. Accessed October 2009.

(August 22, 2008) Younossi Z. Review Article: Current Management of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis. Medscape Today. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/578709. Accessed October 2009.

(September 12, 2007) American Liver Foundation. Autoimmune hepatitis. Available onlien at http://www.liverfoundation.org/education/info/aihep/. Accessed October 2009.

National Digestive Disease Information Clearinghouse. Autoimmune hepatitis. Available online at http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/autoimmunehep/. Accessed October 2009.

University of Wisconsin, School of Medicine and Public Health. Health Information: Autoimmune liver disease panel. Available online at http://apps.uwhealth.org/health/hie/1/003328.htm. Accessed October 2009.

(May 23, 2006) Czaja A. Autoimmune Hepatitis - Approach to Diagnosis, MedScape Today. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/524097. Accessed October 2009.

Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. 16th ed. Kasper D, Braunwald E, Fauci A, Hauser S, Longo D, Jameson JL, eds. McGraw-Hill, 2005 Pp 1822-1828, 1838-1841, 1869-1872.

(October 14, 2015) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Hepatitis C FAQs for Health Professionals. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/hepatitis/hcv/hcvfaq.htm#d3. Accessed December 2015.

(October 15, 2015) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Hepatitis C FAQs for the Public. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/hepatitis/hcv/cfaq.htm#cFAQ61. Accessed December 2015.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Viral Hepatitis Statistics & Surveillance. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/hepatitis/Statistics/2011Surveillance/Commentary.htm#hepB. Accessed 9/1/2013.

National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse (NDDIC). Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis. Available online at http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/nash/#treatment. Accessed 9/2/2013.

Fischbach, F.T., (2004) A Manual of Laboratory & Diagnostic Tests. 7th Edition., Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia.

Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods. 22nd ed. McPherson R, Pincus M, eds. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier: 2011, Pp 308-309.

(February 16, 2012) National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse. Autoimmune Hepatitis. Available online at http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/autoimmunehep/. Accessed October 2013.

(October 4, 2011) American Liver Foundation. Autoimmune Hepatitis. Available online at http://www.liverfoundation.org/abouttheliver/info/aihep/. Accessed October 2013.

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