Proceeds from website advertising help sustain Lab Tests Online. AACC is a not-for-profit organization and does not endorse non-AACC products and services.

HIV Infection and AIDS

Print this article
Share this page:

Related Pages

On This Site
Tests: HIV Antibody, CD4 Count, HIV Genotypic Resistance Testing, HIV Viral Load, p24 Antigen
Conditions: Pneumonia, Fungal Infections, Tuberculosis, STDs
Screening: Pregnancy, Newborns, Teens, Young Adults, Adults, Adults 50 and Up
In the News: New HIV Testing Strategy Recommended for Earlier, Accurate Diagnosis (2014), New HIV Testing Strategy Improves Detection of Early, Acute Infections, Studies Find (2013), Federal Task Force Now Advises More Screening for HIV and Hepatitis C (2013)

Elsewhere On The Web
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: HIV/AIDS
CDC: Living with HIV
CDC HIV/AIDS Facts: HIV in the United States
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, AIDSinfo
AIDS.gov
Canadian AIDS Society
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Division of AIDS
UNAIDS, The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS
FamilyDoctor.org: HIV and AIDS  
KidsHealth.org: HIV and AIDS

Article Sources

NOTE: This article is based on research that utilizes the sources cited here as well as the collective experience of the Lab Tests Online Editorial Review Board. This article is periodically reviewed by the Editorial Board and may be updated as a result of the review. Any new sources cited will be added to the list and distinguished from the original sources used. To access online sources, copy and paste the URL into your browser.

Sources Used for Current Review

(2013 April). Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection: Screening. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Available online at http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/Page/Topic/recommendation-summary/human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv-infection-screening. Accessed 7/6/15.

Bernard, B. et al. (2014 June 27). Laboratory testing for the diagnosis of HIV infection: updated recommendations. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Available online at http://stacks.cdc.gov/view/cdc/23447. Accessed 7/6/15.

(Revised 2013 December 19). CD4 Count. U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. Available online at https://www.aids.gov/hiv-aids-basics/just-diagnosed-with-hiv-aids/understand-your-test-results/cd4-count/. Accessed 7/6/15.

(Revised 2014 September 23). What are the stages of HIV infection? U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. Available online at https://www.aids.gov/hiv-aids-basics/just-diagnosed-with-hiv-aids/understand-your-test-results/cd4-count/. Accessed 7/6/15.

(Copyright 2015). Weinberg, G. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection in Children. Merck Manual. Available online at http://www.merckmanuals.com/home/children-s-health-issues/human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv-infection-in-children/human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv-infection-in-children. Accessed 7/6/15.

(Copyright 2015). McCutchan, J.A. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection. Merck Manual. Available online at http://www.merckmanuals.com/home/infections/human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv-infection/human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv-infection. Accessed 7/6/15.

Choudhary, M.C. (Updated 2015 April 23). Antiretroviral Therapy for Pregnant HIV-Infected Patients. Medscape. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/2042311-overview#a2. Accessed 7/6/15.

(Updated 2015 July 1). HIV in the United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/resources/factsheets/us.htm. Accessed 7/6/15.

(Reviewed 2015 May 11). HIV/AIDS Statistics and Surveillance, Basic Statistics. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/topics/surveillance/basic.htm. Accessed 7/6/15.

Bennett, N. and Gilroy, S. (Updated 2015 June 29). HIV Disease Treatment and Management. Medscape Reference. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/211316-overview. Accessed 7/6/15.

Mayo Clinic Staff (2014 May 20). HIV/AIDS. Mayo Clinic. Available online at http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/hiv-aids/DS00005/METHOD=print. Accessed 7/6/15.

(Updated 2010 November). Human Immunodeficiency Virus – HIV. ARUP Consult. Available online at http://www.arupconsult.com/Topics/HIV.html?client_ID=LTD. Accessed 7/6/15.

Qaseem A, et al. Screening for HIV in Health Care Settings: A Guidance Statement From the American College of Physicians and HIV Medicine Association. Ann Int Med, January 20, 2009 vol. 150 no. 2 125-131. Available online at http://annals.org/article.aspx?articleid=744218. Accessed 7/6/15.

Brooks, M. (2014 June 26). New CDC HIV Testing Recommendations Offer Faster Diagnosis. Medscape. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/827473. Accessed 7/6/15.

(Updated 2015 March 24). HIV Testing in Clinical Settings. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/testing/clinical/. Accessed 7/6/15.

Cennimo, D. (Updated 2014 March 26). HIV Testing Overview. Medscape. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/2061077-overview#a4. Accessed 7/6/15.

(Reviewed 2015 April 8). Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in HIV-1-Infected Adults and Adolescents. The DHHS Panel on Antiretroviral Guidelines for Adults and Adolescents. Available online at https://aidsinfo.nih.gov/contentfiles/lvguidelines/adultandadolescentgl.pdf. Accessed 7/6/15.

(Updated November 2014) World Health Organization. HIV/AIDS Online Q and A. Available online at http://www.who.int/features/qa/71/en/. Accessed July 2015.

(September 2015) World Health Organization. World Health Organization Guideline on When to Start Antiretroviral Therapy and Pre-exposure Prophylaxis in HIV. Available online at http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/186275/1/9789241509565_eng.pdf?ua=1. Accessed October 2015.

Sources Used for Previous Reviews

Thomas, Clayton L., Editor (1997). Taber's Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary. F.A. Davis Company, Philadelphia, PA [18th Edition].

Pagana, Kathleen D. & Pagana, Timothy J. (2001). Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 5th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO.

Janice K. Pinson MT, MBA. Molecular Business Strategies, Birmingham, MI.

Pagana, Kathleen D. & Pagana, Timothy J. (© 2007). Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 8th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO. Pp 23-27, 535-538, and 1036-1037.

Clarke, W. and Dufour, D. R., Editors (2006). Contemporary Practice in Clinical Chemistry, AACC Press, Washington, DC. Pp 487-490.

Wu, A. (2006). Tietz Clinical Guide to Laboratory Tests, Fourth Edition. Saunders Elsevier, St. Louis, Missouri. Pp 1595-1596.

(2008 January 29). New Report Provides Information on HIV Prevalence in the U.S. Household Population. CDC Press Release [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/od/oc/media/pressrel/2008/r080129.htm. Accessed on 4/12/08.

(2008 February 7, Updated). AIDS/HIV, What are AIDS and HIV? National Institute of Child Health and Human Development [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nichd.nih.gov/health/topics/aids_hiv.cfm. Accessed on 4/12/08.

(2007 January 2, Modified). How HIV Tests Work. CDC [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/topics/testing/resources/qa/tests_work.htm. Accessed on 4/12/08.

(2008 April 10, Updated). Neurological Complications of AIDS Fact Sheet. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/aids/detail_aids.htm. Accessed on 4/12/08.

(2008 February 21, Updated). HIV/AIDS. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Division of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome [On-line information]. Available online at http://www3.niaid.nih.gov/healthscience/healthtopics/HIVAIDS/default.htm. Accessed on 4/12/08.

Branson, B., Duffus, W. and Jordan, W. (2008 March 31). Opt-out HIV Testing as a Public Health Tool. Medscape [On-line CME/CE]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/572209.

Hernández, D. and Frye, R. (2007 June 11, Updated). Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection. eMedicine [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.emedicine.com/ped/TOPIC1027.HTM. Accessed on 4/12/08.

(2008 January 29). Panel on Antiretroviral Guidelines for Adults and Adolescents Guidelines for the use of antiretroviral agents in HIV-1-infected adults and adolescents. Department of Health and Human Services. January 29, 2008; 1-128. [On-line information]. PDF available for download at http://www.aidsinfo.nih.gov/ContentFiles/AdultandAdolescentGL.pdf. Accessed on 5/4/08.

(May 8, 2008). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HIV Infection Reporting. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/topics/surveillance/reporting.htm. Accessed August 2008.

(August 3, 2008). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HIV/AIDS in the United States. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/resources/factsheets/us.htm. Accessed August 2008.

(Updated 2011 January 31) Understanding HIV/AIDS. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Division of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.niaid.nih.gov/TOPICS/HIVAIDS/UNDERSTANDING/Pages/Default.aspx. Accessed May 2012.

(Reviewed 2012 March 14). HIV in the United States. CDC [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/resources/factsheets/us.htm. Accessed May 2012.

(Reviewed 2011 August 11). HIV/AIDS Statistics and Surveillance, Basic Statistics. CDC [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/topics/surveillance/basic.htm. Accessed May 2012.

Bennett, N. and Gilroy, S. (Updated 2012 June 18). Medscape Reference [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/211316-overview. Accessed June 2012.

Yin, S. (2011 August 5). CDC: Gay and Bisexual Men Comprise 61% of New HIV Infections. Medscape Medical News [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/747611. Accessed May 2012.

Mayo Clinic Staff (2011 October 20). HIV/AIDS. Mayo Clinic [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/hiv-aids/DS00005/METHOD=print. Accessed May 2012.

Barclay, L. (2011 October 31). AAP Recommends Routine HIV Testing for Adolescents. Medscape Medical News [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/752570. Accessed May 2012.

(Updated 2010 November). Human Immunodeficiency Virus – HIV. ARUP Consult [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.arupconsult.com/Topics/HIV.html?client_ID=LTD. Accessed May 2012.

« Prev