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Infertility

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Tests: DHEAS, FSH, Estrogens, LH, Progesterone, Prolactin, TSH, Free T4, Semen Analysis, Testosterone, Anti-Müllerian Hormone
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Elsewhere On The Web
WomensHealth.gov: Infertility Fact Sheet
MedlinePlus: Infertility
RESOLVE, the National Infertility Association
International Council on Infertility Information Dissemination
American Society for Reproductive Medicine
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Infertility FAQs

Article Sources

NOTE: This article is based on research that utilizes the sources cited here as well as the collective experience of the Lab Tests Online Editorial Review Board. This article is periodically reviewed by the Editorial Board and may be updated as a result of the review. Any new sources cited will be added to the list and distinguished from the original sources used. To access online sources, copy and paste the URL into your browser.

Sources Used in Current Review

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2016. Infertility. Available online at https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/infertility.htm. Accessed December 26, 2016.

MedlinePlus. Infertility. 2016. Available online at https://medlineplus.gov/infertility.html. Accessed December 26, 2016.

National Institute of Health. 2013. Diseases and conditions that influence fertility. Available online at https://www.nichd.nih.gov/health/topics/infertility/conditioninfo/Pages/health-factors.aspx. Accessed December 26, 2016.

National Institute of Health. 2013. How is infertility diagnosed? Available online at https://www.nichd.nih.gov/health/topics/infertility/conditioninfo/Pages/diagnosed.aspx. Accessed December 26, 2016.

Office on Women's Health. 2012. Infertility fact sheet. Available online at https://www.womenshealth.gov/publications/our-publications/fact-sheet/infertility.html#c. Accessed December 26, 2016.

(August 31, 2016) Puscheck E. Infertility. Medscape Reference. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/274143-overview#a5. Accessed January 2017.

(July 16, 2012) Eisenber E, Brumbaugh K. Infertility Fact Sheet. Office on Women's Health, Department of Health and Human Services. Available online at https://www.womenshealth.gov/publications/our-publications/fact-sheet/infertility.html. Accessed January 2017.

Sources Used in Previous Reviews

American Medical Association Complete Guide to Women's Health. Slupik, RI, editor. New York: Random House, Inc., 1996; Pp. 379-380.

"Andrology Laboratory and Fertility Assessment" (chapter 20), in Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods, 20th ed. Sarkar S and Henry JB (JB Henry, editor). Philadelphia: WB Saunders, 2000; Pp. 425-431.

Dr. Richard Marrs' Fertility Book. Marrs R, Friedman Bloch L, Kirtland Silverman K. New York: Bantam Doubleday Dell Publishing Group, Inc., 1997; Pp. 43, 98-100, 103, 106, 109.

"Getting Started, or How Do I Know If I Have An Infertility Problem?" Available online at http://www.resolve.org/started.htm. Accessed November 27, 2001.

Harvard Medical School Family Health Guide. Komaroff AL. New York: Simon & Schuster; 1999; Pp. 908-909.

"Infertility" (section 245), in The Merck Manual, 17th ed. Merck Research Laboratories. Whitehouse Statton, NJ: Merck & Co. 1999; Pp.1991-1995.

Natural Solutions to Infertility. Glenville M. New York: M Evans and Company, Inc., 2000; Pp 18-24, 136-144, 186-190.

Resolving Infertility. Clapp DN and Hollister MR, editors. New York: HarperCollins Publishers, Inc., 1999; Pp. 63-155, 261, 353-356.

Six Steps to Increased Fertility. Barbieri RL, Domar AD, Loughlin KR. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2000; Pp. 124, 173-201.

Medical/technical advisor: Anthony Kurec, MS, DLM(ASCP), Administrator, University Pathologists Laboratories, LLP, SUNY Upstate Medical University.

(© 2007 November). Evaluating Infertility. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.acog.org/publications/patient_education/bp136.cfm. Accessed August 2009.

(© 2007 November). Treating Infertility. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.acog.org/publications/patient_education/bp137.cfm. Accessed August 2009.

Puscheck, E. and Woodard, T. (Updated 2009 May 5) Infertility. eMedicine [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/274143-overview. Accessed August 2009.

Rubenstein, J. and Brannigan, R. (Updated 2008 March 26) Infertility, Male. eMedicine [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/436829-overview. Accessed August 2009.

(Updated 2009 July 1). Infertility, Frequently Asked Questions. National Women's Health Information Service, womenshealth.gov [On-line information]. Available online at http://womenshealth.gov/faq/infertility.cfm. Accessed August 2009.

Mayo Clinic Staff (2009 June 27). Infertility. MayoClinic.com [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/infertility/DS00310/METHOD=print. Accessed August 2009.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Key Statistics from the National Survey of Family Growth: Infertility. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nsfg/abc_list_i.htm#infertility. Accessed August 2009.

Updated Aug. 29, 2012. Male Infertility. Medscape. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/436829-overview. Accessed Mar. 6, 2013.

Updated Feb. 12 2013. Infertility FAQ's. Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/reproductivehealth/infertility/. Accessed Mar. 6, 2013.

Updated Aug. 10 , 2012. Follicle Stimulating Hormone and Luteinizing Hormone. Mayo Clinic. Available online at http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/drug-information/DR600403. Accessed Mar. 6, 2013.

Bhasin S, Jameson JL. Chapter 346. Disorders of the Testes and Male Reproductive System. In: Longo DL, Fauci AS, Kasper DL, Hauser SL, Jameson JL, Loscalzo J, eds. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. 18th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2012. Available online at http://www.accessmedicine.com/content.aspx?aID=9141719. Accessed March 13, 2013.

Hall JE. Chapter 347. The Female Reproductive System, Infertility, and Contraception. In: Longo DL, Fauci AS, Kasper DL, Hauser SL, Jameson JL, Loscalzo J, eds. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. 18th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2012.  Available online at http://www.accessmedicine.com/content.aspx?aID=9141995. Accessed March 13, 2013.

Alford C, Nurudeen S. Chapter 4. Physiology of Reproduction in Women. In: DeCherney AH, Nathan L, Laufer N, Roman AS, eds. CURRENT Diagnosis & Treatment: Obstetrics & Gynecology. 11th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2013. Available online at http://www.accessmedicine.com/content.aspx?aID=56963628. Accessed March 14, 2013.

Rebar RW: Women's health issues. Infertility. Merck Manual, Porter RS, editor-in-chief Merck Sharp & Dohme. Available online through http://www.merckmanual.com.

Borawski D, Bluth MH: Reproductive function and pregnancy, in Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods, 22nded. Mcpherson, Pincus, editors. Elsever-Saunders:Philadelphia. Chapter 24, 2011.

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