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Lead Poisoning

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On This Site
Tests: Lead, Zinc Protoporphyrin, Heavy Metals
Screening: Infants: Lead poisoning, Children: Lead poisoning
In the News: Lead Testing Uncovered Flint, Michigan's Water Contamination Crisis (2016), CDC Reports Half a Million U.S. Kids Above New Threshold for Blood Lead Level (2013)

Elsewhere On The Web
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH): Lead Page
U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Safety & Health Administration Safety and Health Topics: Lead
CDC: Adult Blood Lead Epidemiology and Surveillance (ABLES)
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: Lead
KidsHealth.com: Lead Poisoning

Article Sources

NOTE: This article is based on research that utilizes the sources cited here as well as the collective experience of the Lab Tests Online Editorial Review Board. This article is periodically reviewed by the Editorial Board and may be updated as a result of the review. Any new sources cited will be added to the list and distinguished from the original sources used. To access online sources, copy and paste the URL into your browser.

Sources Used in Current Review

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Blood Lead Levels in Children Aged 1-5 Years – United States, 1990-2010. MMWR. April 5, 2013. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6213a3.htm. Accessed on September 30, 2015.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC Response to Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Recommendations. June 7, 2012. PDF available for download at http://www.cdc.gov/nceh/lead/ACCLPP/CDC_Response_Lead_Exposure_Recs.pdf. Accessed on September 30, 2015.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2014 19 June, Updated.) Blood Lead Levels In Children. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/nceh/lead/acclpp/blood_lead_levels.htm. Accessed on September 30, 2015.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2014 19 June, Updated.) Lead Home: Prevention Tips. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/nceh/lead/tips.htm. Accessed on September 30, 2015.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2014 19 June, Updated.) Lead Home: CDC's Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Program. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/nceh/lead/acclpp/blood_lead_levels.htm. Accessed on September 30, 2015.

Kathuria, P Rowden, A and O'Malley RK. (2015 22 September, Updated). Lead Toxicity. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1174752-overview. Accessed on October 2, 2015.

Mayo Clinic Staff. (2014 10 June, Updated.) Lead Poisoining. Available online at http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/lead-poisoning/basics/definition/con-20035487. Accessed September 30, 2015.

US National Library of Medicine. (2013 1 February, Updated.) Lead Poisoning. Available online at https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002473.htm. Accessed September 30, 2015.

Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease Registry. (2014 21 October, Updated.) Medical Management Guidelines for Lead (Pb). PDF available to download at http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/MHMI/mmg13.pdf. Accessed October 2, 2015.

Dietrich, KN Ware, JH, Salganik, M, et al. Effect of Chelation Therapy on Neuropsychological and Behavioral Development of Lead-exposed Children After School Entry. Pediatrics. 2004; 114(1):19-26 (ISSN: 1098-4275).

National Poison Control Center. Chelation: Therapy or "Therapy"? Available online at http://www.poison.org/articles/2011-mar/chelation-therapy. Accessed on October 2, 2015.

Regulations (Standards - 29 CFR), Medical Surveillance Guidelines - 1926.62 App C. U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA) [Current on-line Regulation Standard for Lead Exposure]. Available online https://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show_document?p_table=STANDARDS&p_id=10644.

Sources Used in Previous Reviews

Phone interview with Ray Meister, Occupational Health Physician, State of California, Department of Health Services.

Phone interview with Michael Ottlinger, Senior Toxicologist, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Cincinnati, OH.

California Department of Health Services, Occupational Health Branch. "How to Prevent Lead Poisoning on Your Job." 2000. Pp. 5-8, 10, 38-40.

National Center for Environmental Health. "Screening Young Children for Lead Poisoning." 1997. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/nceh/lead/guide/97.htm.

New York State Department of Health. "Lead Exposure in Adults—A Guide for Health Care Providers." Available online at http://www.health.state.ny.us/nysdoh/lead/hlthcare.htm.

(2005 October 1). Lead Exposure in Children: Prevention, Detection, and Management. American Academy of Pediatrics, PEDIATRICS Vol. 116 No. 4 October 2005, Pp. 1036-1046.

Pagana, Kathleen D. & Pagana, Timothy J. (2001). Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 5th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO.

(2005 June 23, Reviewed) Lead Health Effects. U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Safety & Health Administration [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.osha.gov/SLTC/lead/recognition.html.

(2005 July, Updated). Lead Poisoning in Children. Familydoctor.org [On-line information]. Available online at http://familydoctor.org/617.xml.

(2005 September, Revised). Management Guidelines for Blood Lead Levels in Children and Adults. California Department of Health Services [On-line information]. PDF available for download at http://www.dhs.ca.gov/ohb/OLPPP/mgmtgdln.pdf.

Hipkins, K. et. al. (2004 November/December). Family Lead Poisoning Associated with Occupational Exposure. Clin Pediatr 2004;43:845-849. PDF available for download at http://www.dhs.ca.gov/ohb/OLPPP/family_lead_poisoning.pdf.

(2005 May 25, Reviewed). CDC Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Program, CDC Recommendations for Lead Poisoning Prevention in Newly Arrived Refugee Children. CDC National Center for Environmental Health [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/nceh/lead/Refugee%20recs.htm.

(2005 September). ToxFAQs™ for Lead. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/tfacts13.html.

(2005 September). Public Health Statement, from Toxicological Profile for Lead, Draft for Public Comment. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) [[On-line information]. Available online at http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp13.html.

(2006 January 13, Reviewed). General Lead Information, Questions and Answers. CDC, National Center for Environmental Health [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/nceh/lead/faq/about.htm.

(2002 March). Managing Elevated Blood Lead Levels Among Young Children: Recommendations from the Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention. CDC [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/nceh/lead/CaseManagement/caseManage_main.htm.

(2003 September 12). Surveillance for Elevated Blood Lead Levels Among Children --- United States, 1997—2001. CDC MMWR [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/ss5210a1.htm.

(2004 July 9). Adult Blood Lead Epidemiology and Surveillance --- United States, 2002. CDC MMWR [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5326a2.htm.

Harold E. Hoffman, MD, FRCPC, FACOEM. Occupational & Environmental Medicine. Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.

Thomas P. Moyer, Ph.D. Professor of Laboratory Medicine, Mayo College of Medicine. Vice Chair for Diagnostic Development, Department of Laboratory Medicine & Pathology. Co-Director for Medical Affairs, Mayo Collaborative Services, Inc. Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN.

Clarke, W. and Dufour, D. R., Editors (© 2006). Contemporary Practice in Clinical Chemistry: AACC Press, Washington, DC. Pp 474.

Wu, A. (© 2006). Tietz Clinical Guide to Laboratory Tests, 4th Edition: Saunders Elsevier, St. Louis, MO. Pp 658-659.

(Updated 2008 May 30). Lead. U.S. Dept of Labor OSHA [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.osha.gov/SLTC/lead/index.html. Accessed June 2009.

(Updated 2009 February 01). Lead. ATSDR [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/substances/toxsubstance.asp?toxid=22. Accessed June 2009.

(Updated 2007 October 05) ToxFAQs™ for Lead. ATSDR [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/tfacts13.html. Accessed June 2009.

S6 (2009 May 19). Lead in Paint, Dust, and Soil. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.epa.gov/opptintr/lead/index.html. Accessed June 2009.

Alexander, D. (Updated 2007 May 25). Lead levels – blood [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003360.htm. Accessed June 2009.

(2007 November 2). Interpreting and Managing Blood Lead Levels <10 µg/dL in Children and Reducing Childhood Exposures to Lead. CDC MMWR 56(RR08);1-14;16 [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/rr5608a1.htm. Accessed June 2009.

(Revised 2007 August 20). Case Studies in Environmental Medicine (CSEM), Lead Toxicity, What Tests Can Assist with Diagnosis of Lead Toxicity? ATSDR [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/csem/lead/pbtests_diagnosis2.html. Accessed June 2009.

(Updated 2008 September) Lead Poisoning. ARUP Consult [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.arupconsult.com/Topics/ToxinsTraceMetals/LeadPoisoning.html. Accessed June 2009.

APHA. CDC Accepts Advisory Committee Recommendation to Replace "Level of Concern" for Lead Poisoning with New Reference Value. Washington, D.C. May 16, 2012. Available online at http://www.apha.org/about/news/pressreleases/2012/cdc+advisory+new+reference+value.htm. Accessed May 2012.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC Response to Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Recommendations in "Low Level Lead Exposure Harms Children: A Renewed Call of Primary Prevention." PDF available for download at http://www.cdc.gov/nceh/lead/ACCLPP/CDC_Response_Lead_Exposure_Recs.pdf. Accessed May 2012.

(January 4, 2012) Report of the Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Low Level Lead Exposure Harms Children: A Renewed Call for Primary Prevention. PDF available for download at http://www.cdc.gov/nceh/lead/ACCLPP/Final_Document_011212.pdf. Accessed February 2012. 

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Lead. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/nceh/lead/. Accessed February 2012.

CDC. Lead – Prevention Tips. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/nceh/lead/tips.htm. Accessed February 2012.

HealthyChildren.org. Lead Poisoning.  Available online through http://www.healthychildren.org. Accessed February 2012. 

CDC. Lead – Case Management Document Chapter 3. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/nceh/lead/CaseManagement/caseManage_chap3.htm. Accessed February 2012.

American Academy of Pediatrics. Lead Exposure in Children: Prevention, Detection, and Management. Pediatrics Vol. 116 No. 4 October 1, 2005, Pp 1036 -1046. Available online at http://aappolicy.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/pediatrics;116/4/1036#SEC7. Accessed February 2012.

OSHA. Lead. Available online at http://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show_document?p_table=STANDARDS&p_id=10030. Accessed February 2012.

OSHA Blood Lead Regulations. Available online at http://www.ehow.com/about_5538910_osha-blood-lead-regulations.html. Accessed April 2012.

OSHA. Blood Lead Laboratories. Available onlne at http://www.osha.gov/SLTC/bloodlead/program.html. Accessed February 2012. 

KidsHealth.org. Blood Test: Lead. Available online at http://kidshealth.org/parent/system/medical/test_lead.html#. Accessed February 2012. 

Donald L. Simmons, Ph.D. Laboratory Manager. State Hygienic Laboratory - Ankeny Ankeny, IA.

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