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Lupus

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Tests: ANA, Autoantibodies, ENA Panel, Anti-dsDNA, Histone Antibody, Antiphospholipid Antibodies, Complement
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Elsewhere On The Web
Lupus Foundation of America
American Autoimmune Related Diseases Association
KidsHealth: Living with Lupus
National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases: Fast Facts About Lupus
MedlinePlus: Lupus
MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia: Drug-induced lupus erythematosus 

Article Sources

NOTE: This article is based on research that utilizes the sources cited here as well as the collective experience of the Lab Tests Online Editorial Review Board. This article is periodically reviewed by the Editorial Board and may be updated as a result of the review. Any new sources cited will be added to the list and distinguished from the original sources used. To access online sources, copy and paste the URL into your browser.

Sources Used in Current Review

American College of Rheumatology. (June 2015 updated.) Lupus. Available online at http://www.rheumatology.org/I-Am-A/Patient-Caregiver/Diseases-Conditions/Lupus. Accessed March 22, 2017.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (30 January 2017 updated.) Lupus Detailed Fact Sheet. Available online at http://www.rheumatology.org/I-Am-A/Patient-Caregiver/Diseases-Conditions/Lupus. Accessed March 22, 2017.

National Resource Center on Lupus. (20 June 2013 updated.) What Is Lupus? Available online at http://www.resources.lupus.org/entry/what-is-lupus. Accessed March 27, 2017.

Mayo Clinic. (18 November 2014 updated.) Lupus. Available online at http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/lupus/basics/definition/con-20019676. Accessed March 22, 2017.

Lupus Foundation of America. (8 July 2013 updated. Lab Tests for Lupus. Available online at http://www.resources.lupus.org/entry/lab-tests. Accessed March 22, 2017.

Bartels CM, Muller D. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). (19 September 2016 updated). Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/332244-overview#a1. Accessed March 27, 2017.

Bartles CM, Diamond, Muller D. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) Workup. (19 September 2016 updated.) Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/332244-workup. Accessed March 27, 2017.

Sources Used in Previous Reviews

(2003 August). Handout on Health: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Disease [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.niams.nih.gov/hi/topics/lupus/slehandout/index.htm.

Ginzler, E. and Tayar, J. (2004 May). Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. American College of Rheumatology [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.rheumatology.org/public/factsheets/sle_new.asp?aud=pat.

(2007 January 12) Lupus. MayoClinic.com [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/lupus/DS00115.

Nan Gustafson. Director of Education and Patient Services, Lupus Foundation of Minnesota.

(2009 April). Handout on Health: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.niams.nih.gov/Health_Info/Lupus/default.asp. Accessed September 2010.

Borigini, M.J. (Updated 2010 February 7). Systemic lupus erythematosus. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000435.htm. Accessed September 2010.

(© 2010). Laboratory Tests for Lupus. Lupus Foundation of America, Inc. [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.lupus.org/webmodules/webarticlesnet/templates/new_learndiagnosing.aspx?articleid=2242&zoneid=524. Accessed September 2010.

Mayo Clinic Staff (2009 October 20). Lupus. MayoClinic.com [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.mayoclinic.com/print/lupus/DS00115/DSECTION=all&METHOD=print. Accessed September 2010.

Hill, H. and Tebo, A (Updated 2009 November). Systemic Lupus Erythematosus – SLE. ARUP Consult [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.arupconsult.com/Topics/SLE.html?client_ID=LTD. Accessed September 2010.

Bartels, C. and Muller, D (Updated 2010 September 21). Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. eMedicine [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/332244-overview. Accessed September 2010.

Klippel JH, Weyand CM, Wortmann RL, eds. Primer on the Rheumatic Diseases. Chapter 19. Arthritis Foundation, 1997.

Cervera R et al. Anti-chromatin antibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus: a useful marker for lupus nephropathy. Ann Rheum Dis 2003;62:431-434 doi:10.1136/ard.62.5.431.

Derivation and Validation of Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics Classification Criteria for Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. ACR/ARHP 2011 Scientific Meeting. Available online at http://acr.confex.com/acr/2011/webprogram/Paper18294.html. Accessed March 2014.

National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases. Handout on Health: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. Available online at http://www.niams.nih.gov/Health_Info/Lupus/default.asp. Accessed March 2014.

National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases. Fast Facts About Lupus. Available online at http://www.niams.nih.gov/Health_Info/Lupus/lupus_ff.asp. Accessed March 2014.

MayoClinic.com. Lupus. Available online at http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/lupus/DS00115. Accessed March 2014.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE or lupus). Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/arthritis/basics/lupus.htm. Accessed March 2014.

MedlinePlus. Lupus. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/lupus.html. Accessed March 2014.

MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia. Systemic lupus erythematosus. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000435.htm. Accessed March 2014.

MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia. Drug-induced lupus erythematosus. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000446.htm. Accessed March 2014.

MedlinePlus Drug Information. Isoniazid. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/meds/a682401.html. Accessed March 2014.

MedlinePlus Drug Information. Hydralazine. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/meds/a682246.html. Accessed March 2014.

MedlinePlus Drug Information. Procainamide Oral. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/meds/a682398.html. Accessed March 2014.

Lupus Foundation of America. Which medications cause drug-induced lupus? Available online at http://www.lupus.org/answers/entry/which-medications-cause-drug-induced-lupus. Accessed March 2014.

Hahn B. Chapter 319. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. In: Longo DL, Fauci AS, Kasper DL, Hauser SL, Jameson J, Loscalzo J. eds. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 18e. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2012.

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