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Meningitis and Encephalitis

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Elsewhere On The Web
KidsHealth.org: Meningitis
KidsHealth.org: Encephalitis
MedlinePlus: Meningitis
MedlinePlus: Encephalitis
National Institute on Neurological Disorders and Stroke: Meningitis and Encephalitis
Meningitis Foundation of America
National Meningitis Association
The Encephalitis Society

Article Sources

NOTE: This article is based on research that utilizes the sources cited here as well as the collective experience of the Lab Tests Online Editorial Review Board. This article is periodically reviewed by the Editorial Board and may be updated as a result of the review. Any new sources cited will be added to the list and distinguished from the original sources used. To access online sources, copy and paste the URL into your browser.

Sources Used in Current Review

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2016. Meningitis. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/meningitis/. Accessed April 22, 2016.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2015. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6434a1.htm. Accessed April 24, 2016.

Meningitis Research Foundation. 2016. What are meningitis and septicaemia? Available online at http://www.meningitis.org/disease-info/what-are-meningitis-septicaemia. Accessed April 23, 2016.

National Meningitis Association. 2016. Statistics and Disease Facts. Available online at http://www.nmaus.org/disease-prevention-information/statistics-and-disease-facts/. Accessed April 22, 2016.

World Health Organization. 2016. Emergencies preparedness, response. Available online at http://www.who.int/csr/disease/meningococcal/en/. Accessed April 24, 2016.

(February 16, 2016) Hasbun R, Meningitis. Medscape Review. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/232915-overview. Accessed April 2016.

(April 13, 2016) Howes D. Encephalitis. Medscape Review. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/791896-overview. Accessed April 2016.

(February 23, 2016) National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. Meningitis and Encephalitis Fact Sheet. Available online at http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/encephalitis_meningitis/detail_encephalitis_meningitis.htm. Accessed May 2016.

Sources Used in Previous Reviews

Wu, A. (2006). Tietz Clinical Guide to Laboratory Tests, Fourth Edition. Saunders Elsevier, St. Louis, Missouri. Pp 1554-1555.

Sur, D. and Bukont, E. (2007 June 15). Evaluating Fever of Unidentifiable Source in Young Children. American Family Physician v 75 (12). Available online through http://www.aafp.org/. Accessed on 3/18/08.

(2007 December 11). Meningitis and Encephalitis Fact Sheet. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. Available online through http://www.ninds.nih.gov/. Accessed on 3/9/08.

(2005 October 12). Meningococcal Disease. CDC Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases. Available online through http://www.cdc.gov/. Accessed on 3/9/08.

Torpy, J. (2006 October 25) Lumbar Puncture. Journal of the American Medical Association Patient Page, JAMA V 296 (16). Available online through http://jama.ama-assn.org/. Accessed on 3/9/08.

Torpy, J. (2007 January 3). Meningitis. Journal of the American Medical Association Patient Page, JAMA V 297 (1). Available online through http://jama.ama-assn.org/. Accessed on 3/9/08.

Mayo Clinic Staff (2007 May 4). Encephalitis. MayoClinic.com. Available online through http://www.mayoclinic.com/. Accessed on 3/9/08.

Weomberg. G. (2006 June Revision). Meningitis. Merck Manual Home Edition. Available online through http://www.merck.com/. Accessed on 3/8/09.

Razonable, R. and Keating, M. (2007 November 26, Updated). Meningitis. EMedicine. Available online through http://www.emedicine.com/. Accessed on 3/21/08.

(2005 November 7, Reviewed). Information on Arboviral Encephalitides. CDC Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases, Arboviral Encephalitides. Available online through http://www.cdc.gov/. Accessed on 3/18/08.

Babcock, H. (2006 September 6, Updated). Meningitis – cryptococcal. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia. Available online through http://www.nlm.nih.gov/. Accessed on 3/18/08.

Fitch, M. and van de Beek, D. (2008 January 30). Drug Insight: Steroids in CNS Infectious Diseases -- New Indications for an Old Therapy. Medscape from Nat Clin Pract Neurol 2008. [On-line CME]. Available online through http://www.medscape.com/. Accessed on 3/21/08.

Hom, J. and Felter, R. (2006 May 16, Updated). Pediatrics, Meningitis and Encephalitis. eMedicine. Available online through http://www.emedicine.com/. Accessed on 3/21/08.

(© 2008). Cerebrospinal Fluid, Anatomy and Formation. College of American Pathologists. Available online through http://www.cap.org/. Accessed on 3/21/08.

(© 2007). Prevention. Meningitis Vaccine, CDC Meningitis, NMA. Available online through http://www.nmaus.org/. Accessed on 3/9/08.

Brook, I. (2006 December 15, Updated). Brain Abscess. emedicine. Available online through http://www.emedicine.com/. Accessed on 3/21/08.

Segun, T. D. and Lorenzo, N. (2007 January 17, Updated). Subdural Empyema. emedicine. Available online through http://www.emedicine.com/. Accessed on 3/21/08.

Forbes BA, Sahm DF, Weissfeld AS. Bailey & Scott's Diagnostic Microbiology, 12th Edition: Mosby Elsevier, St. Louis, MO; 2007 Pp 822-831.

Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods. 21st ed. McPherson R, Pincus M, eds. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier: 2007. Pp 435-437, 989-991.

Kasper DL, Braunwald E, Fauci AS, Hauser SL, Longo DL, Jameson JL eds, (2005). Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 16th Edition, McGraw Hill, Pp 2471-2494.

(Februrary 16, 2011) National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. Meningitis and Encephalitis Information Page. Available online at http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/encephalitis_meningitis/encephalitis_meningitis.htm. Accessed Sep 2012.

(Oct 19, 2009) National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. Pneumococcal Disease. Available online at http://www.niaid.nih.gov/topics/pneumococal/Pages/PneumococcalDisease.aspx. Accessed Sep 2012.

(June 26, 21012) Razonable R, et al. Meningitis. Medscape Reference article. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/232915-overview. Accessed Sep 2012.

(March 29, 2011) Wan C, et al. Viral Meningitis. Medscape Reference article. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1168529-overview Accessed Sep 2012

(Jan 6, 2012) Howe D, et al., Encephalitis, Medscape Reference article http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/791896-overview. Accessed Sep 2012.

(March 15, 2012) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Meningitis. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/meningitis/index.html. Accessed Sep 2012.

(July 1, 20122) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Traveler's Health: Japanese Encephalitis. Available online through http://www.cdc.gov. Accessed Sep 2012.

(Aug 16, 2010) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Eastern Equine Encephalitis. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/easternequineencephalitis/. Accessed Sep 2012.

(Nov 20, 2009) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. St. Louis Encephalitis. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/sle/technical/epi.html. Accessed Sep 2012.

(September 15, 2010) Dugdale D. National Center for Biotechnology Information. Meningitis. Available online at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0001700/. Accessed Sep 2012.

(November 2, 2012) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Parasites: Schistosomiasis FAQs. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/parasites/schistosomiasis/gen_info/faqs.html. Accessed Sep 2012.

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