On This Site
Tests: hs-CRP, Lipid Profile, Cholesterol, HDL Cholesterol, LDL Cholesterol, Triglycerides, Cardiac Risk Assessment, Insulin, Glucose Tests, LDL Particle Testing
Conditions: Diabetes, Insulin Resistance, Cardiovascular Disease, Hypertension, Heart Disease, Kidney Disease, Stroke
Elsewhere On The Web
American Academy of Family Physician, FamilyDoctor.org: Metabolic Syndrome
Cleveland Clinic: Metabolic Syndrome
Mayo Clinic: Metabolic syndrome
American Heart Association: Metabolic Syndrome
KidsHealth.org: Metabolic Syndrome
CDC: Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity and Obesity
CDC: Overweight & Obesity
NIDDK: Diet & Nutrition
NOTE: This article is based on research that utilizes the sources cited here as well as the collective experience of the Lab Tests Online Editorial Review Board. This article is periodically reviewed by the Editorial Board and may be updated as a result of the review. Any new sources cited will be added to the list and distinguished from the original sources used. To access online sources, copy and paste the URL into your browser.
Sources Used in Current Review
2016 review performed by Lei Fu, PhD, DABCC, FACB, FCACB, Clinical Biochemist, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto and the Editorial Review Board.
Alberti KG, Eckel RH, Grundy SM, Zimmet PZ, Cleeman JI, Donato KA, et al. Harmonizing the metabolic syndrome: a joint interim statement of the International Diabetes Federation Task Force on Epidemiology and Prevention; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; American Heart Association; World Heart Federation; International Atherosclerosis Society; and International Association for the Study of Obesity. Circulation. 2009 Oct 20. 120 (16):1640-5.
Alberti KG, Zimmet PZ. Definition, diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus and its complications. Part 1: diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus provisional report of a WHO consultation. Diabet Med 1998;15:539–553.
National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Adult Treatment Panel III final report. Circulation 2002;106:3143–3421.
Grundy, SM, et al. Diagnosis and Management of the Metabolic Syndrome. An American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Scientific Statement. Circulation 2005;112:2735–2752.
(November 6, 2015) National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. What is Metabolic Syndrome? Available online at http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/ms. Accessed February 2016.
(December 27, 2015) Wang S. Metabolic Syndrome. Medscape Reference. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/165124-overview. Accessed February 2016.
Huang P. A comprehensive definition for metabolic syndrome. Dis Model Mech. 2009 May-Jun; 2(5-6): 231–237. Available online at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2675814/. Accessed February 2016.
Sources Used in Previous Reviews
Thomas, Clayton L., Editor (1997). Taber's Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary. F.A. Davis Company, Philadelphia, PA [18th Edition].
Pagana, Kathleen D. & Pagana, Timothy J. (2001). Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 5th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO.
(2003 March 03, Reviewed). Metabolic Syndrome. Cleveland Clinic Health Information Center. Available online at http://www.clevelandclinic.org/health/health-info/docs/3000/3057.asp?index=10783.
Syndrome X or Metabolic Syndrome. American Heart Association. Available online at http://www.americanheart.org/presenter.jhtml?identifier=534.
Metabolic Syndrome. American Heart Association. Available online at http://www.americanheart.org/presenter.jhtml?identifier=4756.
The Metabolic Syndrome. American Diabetes Association. Available online at http://www.diabetes.org/weightloss-and-exercise/weightloss/metabolicsyndrome.jsp.
Blackburn, G. and Bevis, L. (2003 September 12, Updated). The Obesity Epidemic: Prevention and Treatment of the Metabolic Syndrome. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewprogram/2015.
Peters Harmel, A. and Berger, D. (2003 August 24 – 29). Clinical Implications of the Metabolic Syndrome. Medscape coverage of: 18th International Diabetes Federation Congress. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/462881.
Hoefner, D. (2003 October). The ruthless malady: metabolic syndrome. MLO. Available online at http://www.mlo-online.com.
Clarke, W. and Dufour, D. R., Editors (2006). Contemporary Practice in Clinical Chemistry. AACC Press, Washington, DC. Pp 296.
(2007 April). What Is Metabolic Syndrome? NHLBI. Available online at http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/. Accessed on 3/9/08.
Blaha, M. and Elasy, T. (2006). Clinical Use of the Metabolic Syndrome:Why the Confusion? Clinical Diabetes v 24 (3). Available online at http://clinical.diabetesjournals.org/. Accessed on 3/9/08.
(January 2006) Pizzi, R. Agreeing to Disagree ADA, AHA Publish Opposing Views on Metabolic Syndrome. Clinical Laboratory News Volume 32, No. 1.
American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Research Summary, Is the Metabolic Syndrome Really a Syndrome? Available online at http://www.diabetes.org. Accessed June 2008.
(22 May 2008) Sattar N, et al. Can metabolic syndrome usefully predict cardiovascular disease and diabetes? Outcome data from two prospective studies. The Lancet 2008; 371:1927-1935. Available online at http://www.thelancet.com. Accessed June 2008.
(Updated 2011 November 3). What Is Metabolic Syndrome? National Heart Lung and Blood Institute [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/ms/. Accessed November 2011.
Mayo Clinic staff (Updated 2011 October 8). Metabolic syndrome. Mayo Clinic Medical [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/metabolic%20syndrome/DS00522/METHOD=print. Accessed November 2011.
Wang, S. (Updated 2011 November 9). Metabolic Syndrome. Medscape Reference [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/165124-overview. Accessed November 2011.
Eckman, A. (2011 June 28). Metabolic syndrome. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/007290.htm. Accessed November 2011.
(2010 March). The Metabolic Syndrome. The Hormone Foundation [On-line information]. PDF available for download at http://www.hormone.org/Resources/upload/metabolic-syndrome-bilingual-042010.pdf. Accessed November 2011.
Roberts, W. (Updated 2011 May). Metabolic Syndrome. ARUP Consult [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.arupconsult.com/Topics/MetabolicSyndrome.html. Accessed November 2011.