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Multiple Sclerosis

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Tests: CSF Analysis, Protein Electrophoresis
Conditions: Autoimmune Disorders, Sarcoidosis, Vasculitis, Lyme Disease, Lupus

Elsewhere On The Web
Multiple Sclerosis Foundation
The National Multiple Sclerosis Society (NMSS)
National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke: MS Information Page
Multiple Sclerosis Association of America
Multiple Sclerosis Discovery Forum

Article Sources

NOTE: This article is based on research that utilizes the sources cited here as well as the collective experience of the Lab Tests Online Editorial Review Board. This article is periodically reviewed by the Editorial Board and may be updated as a result of the review. Any new sources cited will be added to the list and distinguished from the original sources used. To access online sources, copy and paste the URL into your browser.

Sources Used in Current Review

Aharoni, R. 2013. Autoimmunity Reviews. The mechanism of action of glatiramer acetate in multiple sclerosis and beyond. Available online at http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1568997212002443. Accessed April 9, 2016.

Browne, P., et al. 2014. American Academy of Neurology. Atlas of Multiple Sclerosis 2013: A growing global problem with widespread inequity. Available online at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4162299/. Accessed April 9, 2016.

National Multiple Sclerosis Society. 2016. What is MS? Available online at http://www.nationalmssociety.org/What-is-MS. Accessed April 9, 2016.

National Multiple Sclerosis Society. CHANGES IN MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS DISEASE-COURSE (OR “TYPE”) DESCRIPTIONS. Available online at http://www.nationalmssociety.org/NationalMSSociety/media/MSNational/Charts-Graphics/new_MSdiseasecourses_table.pdf. Accessed April 2016.

Multiple Sclerosis Association of America. 2016. Possible Causes of Multiple Sclerosis. Available online at http://mymsaa.org/ms-information/overview/possible-causes/. Accessed April 9, 2016.

National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. 2015. Multiple Sclerosis: Hope Through Research. Available online at http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/multiple_sclerosis/detail_multiple_sclerosis.htm. Accessed April 9, 2016.

Lublin et al. Defining the clinical course of multiple sclerosis; the 2013 revisions. Neurology 2014;83:278-286.

Sources Used in Previous Reviews

Thomas, Clayton L., Editor (1997). Taber's Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary. F.A. Davis Company, Philadelphia, PA [18th Edition].

Pagana, Kathleen D. & Pagana, Timothy J. (2001). Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 5th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO.

Espay, A. (2002 May 6, Updated). Multiple sclerosis [20 paragraphs]. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000737.htm.

(2003 August 12). About MS What Is Multiple Sclerosis? National Multiple Sclerosis Society [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nationalmssociety.org/What%20is%20MS.asp.

(2001 July 1, Reviewed). NINDS Multiple Sclerosis Information Page. NINDS [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.ninds.nih.gov/health_and_medical/disorders/multiple_sclerosis.htm.

Mayo Clinic Staff (2004 May 7). Multiple sclerosis. MayoClinic.com [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.mayoclinic.com/invoke.cfm?id=DS00188.

Kiriakopoulos, E. (2003 August 10, Updated). CSF oligoclonal banding. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003631.htm.

(© 1995-2004). Multiple Sclerosis and Related Diseases, Introduction. The Merck Manual – Second Home Edition [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.mult-sclerosis.org/oligoclonalbanding.html.

Holland, N. (2003 December). Overview of Multiple Sclerosis. MSNursing, NMSS [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nationalmssociety.org/ms_nursing/overview.asp.

(2002 Updated). Multiple Sclerosis: Hope Through Research. NINDS [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.ninds.nih.gov/health_and_medical/pubs/multiple_sclerosis.htm.

(© 2004). Immunoglobulin G, CSF Index and Immunoglobulin G/Albumin Ratio, CSF. ARUP’s Guide to Clinical Laboratory Testing [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.aruplab.com/guides/clt/tests/clt_al9b.jsp.

(© 2004). Oligoclonal Banding and Multiple Sclerosis Panel. ARUP’s Guide to Clinical Laboratory Testing [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.aruplab.com/guides/clt/tests/clt_112b.jsp#1143660.

(© 2004). Myelin Basic Protein. ARUP’s Guide to Clinical Laboratory Testing [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.aruplab.com/guides/clt/tests/clt_a94b.jsp#1142392.

(Updated 2008 December). Multiple Sclerosis: Hope Through Research. NINDS, National Institute of Health. Available online at http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/multiple_sclerosis/detail_multiple_sclerosis.htm. Accessed March 2009.

Minden, S.and Frankel, D. (Updated May 2008). PLAINTALK: A Booklet about MS for Families. National Multiple Sclerosis Society. [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nationalmssociety.org/multimedia-library/brochures/managing-major-changes/index.aspx. Accessed March 2009.

Dangond, F. (Updated 2008 July 3). Multiple Sclerosis. Emedicine.com. [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1146199-overview. Accessed March 2009.

Brian R. Apatoff, B. (Revised August 2007). Multiple Sclerosis. Merck Manual for Healthcare Professionals. [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.merck.com/mmpe/sec16/ch222/ch222b.html?qt=MS&alt=sh. Accessed March 2009.

(©2011) National Multiple Sclerosis Society. Treatments. Available online at http://www.nationalmssociety.org/about-multiple-sclerosis/what-we-know-about-ms/treatments/medications/interferon-beta-1b/index.aspx. Accessed April 2013.

(©2011) National Multiple Sclerosis Society. Diagnosing MS. Available online at http://www.nationalmssociety.org/about-multiple-sclerosis/what-we-know-about-ms/diagnosing-ms/index.aspx. Accessed April 2013.

(©2011) National Multiple Sclerosis Society. Diagnosis Criteria. PDF available for download at http://www.nationalmssociety.org/ms-clinical-care-network/clinical-resources-and-tools/core-curriculum/diagnosing-multiple-sclerosis/diagnostic-criteria/index.aspx. Accessed April 2013.

(August 14, 2012) National Institute on Neurologic Disorders and Stroke. Multiple Sclerosis. Available online at http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/multiple_sclerosis/multiple_sclerosis.htm. Accessed April 2013.

(Updated April 2013) Luzzio C. Multiple Sclerosis. Medscape Reference. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1146199-overview. Accessed April 2013.

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