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Osteoporosis

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On This Site
Tests: ALP, Bone Markers, Vitamin D Tests, Calcium
Conditions: Menopause
Screening: Adults (50 and Up)

Elsewhere On The Web
National Osteoporosis Foundation
NIAMS: Osteoporosis and Related Bone Diseases
CDC: Does Osteoporosis Run in Your Family?
MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia: Osteoporosis

Article Sources

NOTE: This article is based on research that utilizes the sources cited here as well as the collective experience of the Lab Tests Online Editorial Review Board. This article is periodically reviewed by the Editorial Board and may be updated as a result of the review. Any new sources cited will be added to the list and distinguished from the original sources used. To access online sources, copy and paste the URL into your browser.

Sources Used in Current Review

(June 2, 2014) National Osteoporosis Foundation. Updated prevalence data. Available online at https://www.nof.org/2014/06/02/54-million-americans-affected-by-osteoporosis-and-low-bone-mass/. Accessed June 2016.

(2014) National Osteoporosis Foundation. Clinician's Guide. Available online at http://www.nof.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/Healthy-Bones-for-life-Clinician-Guide.pdf. Accessed June 2016.

National Osteoporosis Foundation. Overview on bone density exam/testing. Available online at https://www.nof.org/patients/diagnosis-information/bone-density-examtesting/. Accessed June 2016.

Mayo Clinic. Osteoporosis Risk Factors. Available online at http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/osteoporosis/basics/risk-factors/con-20019924. Accessed June 2016.

(June 2015) National Institutes of Health. Peak Bone Mass in Women. Available online at http://www.niams.nih.gov/health_info/bone/osteoporosis/bone_mass.asp Accessed June 2016.

(Nov. 28, 2013) Pisani, Paola. Screening and early diagnosis of osteoporosis through X-ray and ultrasound based techniques. World Journal of Radiology. Available online at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3856332/. Accessed June 2016.

(June 2015) United States Preventive Services Task Force. Topic Update in Progress. Available online at http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/Page/Document/UpdateSummaryDraft/osteoporosis-screening1. Accessed June 2016.

(2013) American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Practice Bulletin on Osteoporosis. Available online at http://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0815/p269.pdf. Accessed June 2016.

(April 1, 2016) Amgen. Romosozumab Phase 3 study. Available online at http://www.amgen.com/media/news-releases/2016/04/amgen-and-ucb-present-positive-data-at-endo-2016-comparing-romosozumab-with-teriparatide/. Accessed June 2016.

(April 4, 2016) McKee, Selina. Amgen/UCB's bone drug romosozumab shines again in PhIII. PharmaTimes Online. Available online at http://www.pharmatimes.com/news/amgenucbs_bone_drug_romosozumab_shines_again_in_phiii_1020525. Accessed June 2016.

(December 16, 2014) Talwar, S. Bone Markers in Osteoporosis. Medscape Reference. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/128567-overview. Accessed June 2016.

Office of the Surgeon General (US). Bone Health and Osteoporosis: A Report of the Surgeon General. Rockville (MD): 2004. 2, The Basics of Bone in Health and Disease. Available online at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK45504/. Accessed June 2016.

Sources Used in Previous Reviews

(2005 June, Revised). Osteoporosis Overview. NIAMS [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.niams.nih.gov/bone/hi/overview.htm.

(2005 November, Revised). Osteoporosis: The Diagnosis. NIAMS [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.niams.nih.gov/bone/hi/osteoporosis_diagnosis.htm.

Amin, S. (2004 May, Updated). Osteoporosis. American College of Rheumatology [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.rheumatology.org/public/factsheets/osteopor_new.asp?aud=pat.

(© 2006). Fast Facts. National Osteoporosis Foundation [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nof.org/osteoporosis/diseasefacts.htm.

(2005 October 5). Bone density test: Measure your risk of osteoporosis. MayoClinic.com [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/bone-density-tests/WO00024.

Sheryl L. Follin, Laura B. Hansen (Posted 05/01/2003). Current Approaches to the Prevention and Treatment of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis from American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/453035.

WebMD A to Z Health Guide from WebMD: Medical Tests, Bone Scan (July 2006-Online information). Available online at http://www.webmd.com/hw/health_guide_atoz/hw200283.asp.

WebMD A to Z Health Guide from WebMD: Medical Tests, Bone Mineral Density (August 2006-Online information). Available online at http://www.webmd.com/hw/osteoporosis/hw3738.asp.

Vesper, H. (2005 August 10). Analytical and Preanalytical Issues in Measurement of Biochemical Bone Markers. Medscape from Laboratory Medicine [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/509097. Accessed on 12/9/07.

Srivastava, A. (2005 July 22). Clinical Use of Serum and Urine Bone Markers in the Management of Osteoporosis. Medscape Current Medical Research and Opinion [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/508542. Accessed on 12/9/07.

(2006 July). Procollagen Type 1 N-Terminal Propeptide. ARUP Technical Bulletin [On-line information]. Accessed on: 12/9/07. PDF available for download through http://wwwaruplab.com.

Cundy, T. et. al. (2007 April 13). Bone Formation Markers in Adults with Mild Osteogenesis Imperfecta. Clinical Chemistry 2007; 53:1109-1114 [On-line abstract]. Available online at http://www.clinchem.org/cgi/content/abstract/53/6/1109. Accessed on 12/9/07.

Garnero, P. et al. Evaluation of a Fully Automated Serum Assay for Total N-Terminal Propetide of Type I Collagen in Postmenopausal Osteoporosis. Clinical Chemistry 2008; 54:1, Pp. 188-196.

National Osteoporosis Foundation. Fast Facts on Osteoporosis. Available online at http://www.nof.org/osteoporosis/diseasefacts.htm. Accessed March 7, 2009.

NIAMS. Osteoporosis Overview. Available online at http://www.niams.nih.gov/Health_Info/Bone/Osteoporosis/default.asp.

Sweet MG, Sweet JM, Jeremiah MP, Galazka SS. Diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis. Am Fam Physician. 2009 Feb 1;79(3):193-200. Available online through http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.

NATIONAL OSTEOPOROSIS FOUNDATION RELEASES NEW CLINICAL RECOMMENDATIONS FOR LOW BONE MASS AND OSTEOPOROSIS INCORPORATING ABSOLUTE FRACTURE RISK, Washington, DC (February 21, 2008). Available online at http://www.nof.org/news/pressreleases/Clinician_Guide_release.htm.

(May 15, 2006) Dolan C, et. al. Associations Between Body Composition, Anthropometry and Mortality in Women of Age 65 and Older. American Journal of Public Health 2007;97(5):913-918. Medscape Today. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/556519. Accessed October 2009.

Tanita. Body Composition Analyzer (FDA cleared). Available online at http://www.tanita.com/en/body-composition-analyzer/. Accessed October 2009.

National Osteoporosis Foundation. About Osteoporosis. Available online at http://www.nof.org/aboutosteoporosis/whatwomencando/introduction. Accessed September 2012.

National Osteoporosis Foundation. Why Bone Health is Important. Available online at http://www.nof.org/aboutosteoporosis/bonebasics/whybonehealth. Accessed September 2012.

National Osteoporosis Foundation on Bone Mineral Density Testing. Available online at http://www.nof.org/node/501. Accessed September 2012.

NIAMS. Osteoporosis and Related Bone Diseases. Available online at http://www.niams.nih.gov/Health_Info/Bone/. Accessed September 2012.

NIAMS. Fast Facts About Osteoporosis. Available online at http://www.niams.nih.gov/Health_Info/Bone/Osteoporosis/osteoporosis_ff.asp. Accessed September 2012.

USPSTF. Screening for Osteoporosis. Release Date: January 2011. Available online at http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf/uspsoste.htm. Accessed September 2012.

ACOG. Osteoporosis Guidelines Issued. Bone Health Counseling Begins in Adolescence. August 21, 2012. Available online at http://www.acog.org/About_ACOG/News_Room/News_Releases/2012/Osteoporosis_Guidelines_Issued. Accessed September 2012.

Bone Markers in Osteoporosis. Medscape. Updated Jan 3, 2012. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/128567-overview. Accessed September 2012.

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