The medical community has set a low diagnostic threshold for this condition. This means that if the doctor suspects PID, then it should be treated regardless of whether the diagnosis can be confirmed. This is done because it takes very little scarring as a result of PID to cause infertility.
Treatment will not reverse the damage already incurred but may prevent further damage to reproductive organs. Early treatment serves as a good protection against complications. Treatment is typically one or more broad-spectrum antibiotics that will target Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and a range of other bacteria. If specific bacteria are identified through testing, then the treatment is tailored to address that type of infection. A woman's sexual partner must also be treated so that the woman is not re-infected.
In most cases, treatment can be given on an outpatient basis, but if the woman is acutely ill, pregnant, or not responding to treatment, then she may require hospitalization. With more complicated cases, for example if an abscess has formed, surgery may be required.