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Stroke

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NINDS Stroke Information Page
NHLBI: What is a Stroke?
FamilyDoctor.org: Stroke
MayoClinic.com: Stroke

Article Sources

NOTE: This article is based on research that utilizes the sources cited here as well as the collective experience of the Lab Tests Online Editorial Review Board. This article is periodically reviewed by the Editorial Board and may be updated as a result of the review. Any new sources cited will be added to the list and distinguished from the original sources used. To access online sources, copy and paste the URL into your browser.

Sources Used in Current Review

Jauch, E. and Stettler, B. (2015 Nov 23, Updated). Ischemic Stroke. Medscape Drugs and Diseases [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1916852-overview. Accessed March 2016.

Liebeskind, D. (2015 January 8, Updated). Hemorrhagic Stroke. Medscape Drugs and Diseases [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1916662-overview. Accessed March 2016.

(2014 December 17). Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics – At-a-Glance. American Health Association [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.heart.org/idc/groups/ahamah-public/@wcm/@sop/@smd/documents/downloadable/ucm_470704.pdf. Accessed March 2016.

(2015 October 28, Updated). What Is a Stroke? National Heart Lung and Blood Institute [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/stroke. Accessed on March 2016.

(2015 October 18, Modified). NINDS Stroke Information Page. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/stroke/stroke.htm. Accessed March 2016.

Mayo Clinic Staff. (© 1998-2016).Stroke Symptoms and Causes. Mayo Clinic [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/stroke/symptoms-causes/dxc-20117265?p=1. Accessed March 2016.

Giraldo, E. (2013 November, Revised). Overview of Stroke. Merck Manual Professional Version [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/neurologic-disorders/stroke-cva/overview-of-stroke. Accessed March 2016.

Sources Used in Previous Reviews

Thomas, Clayton L., Editor (1997). Taber's Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary. F.A. Davis Company, Philadelphia, PA [18th Edition].

Pagana, Kathleen D. & Pagana, Timothy J. (2001). Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 5th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO.

Klausner HA, Lewandowski C. Infrequent causes of stroke. Emerg Med Clinics of North Amer 20:657, 2002.

Chalel JA, Merino JG, Warach S. Update on stroke. Curr Opin Neurol 17:447, 2004.

Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 16th Ed. Kasper DL, et al., Eds. McGraw-Hill Companies. 2005.

Christenson RH and Dambinova S. Stroke: A Look at Emerging Biochemical Markers. Clinical Laboratory News March 2008. Volume 34, Number 3. Available online at http://www.aacc.org/publications/cln/2008/mar/Pages/series_0308.aspx. Accessed May 2008.

The Internet Stroke Center: Blood Tests and Procedures Used for Stroke Diagnosis. Available online at http://www.strokecenter.org/pat/diagnosis/blood_tests.htm. Accessed May 2008.

National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. Stroke Information Page. Available online at http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/stroke/stroke.htm. Accessed May 2008.

National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. Stroke Information Page. Available online at http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/stroke/stroke.htm. Accessed September 2011.

American Stroke Association. Warning Signs. Available online at http://www.strokeassociation.org/STROKEORG/WarningSigns/Warning-Signs_UCM_308528_SubHomePage.jsp. Accessed September 2011. 

American Stroke Association. Impact of Stroke. Available online at http://www.strokeassociation.org/STROKEORG/AboutStroke/Impact-of-Stroke_UCM_310728_Article.jsp. Accessed September 2011.

American Stroke Association. Understanding Risk. Available online at http://www.strokeassociation.org/STROKEORG/AboutStroke/UnderstandingRisk/Understanding-Risk_UCM_308539_SubHomePage.jsp. Accessed September 2011.

American Stroke Association. Diagnosis. Available online at http://www.strokeassociation.org/STROKEORG/AboutStroke/Diagnosis/Diagnosis_UCM_310890_Article.jsp. Accessed September 2011.

American Stroke Association. Treatment. Available online at http://www.strokeassociation.org/STROKEORG/AboutStroke/Treatment/Treatment_UCM_310892_Article.jsp. Accessed September 2011.

MedlinePlus Medical Encylopedia. Stroke. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000726.htm. Accessed September 2011.

Hijazi, Z et al. Abstract 13472: NT-proBNP is Prognostic for Stroke and Death in Atrial Fibrillation - a RELY Substudy. Circulation November 2010, 122 (Meeting Abstract Supplement). Available online at http://circ.ahajournals.org/cgi/content/meeting_abstract/122/21_MeetingAbstracts/A13472. Accessed September 2011.

Fonseca AC et al. N-terminal probrain natriuretic peptide as a biomarker of cardioembolic stroke.Int J Stroke 2011 Oct;6(5):398-403. doi: 10.1111/j.1747-4949.2011.00606.x. Epub 2011 Jun 6. Available online at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21645267. Accessed September 2011.

Internet Stroke Center. Blood Tests. Available online at http://www.strokecenter.org/patients/stroke-diagnosis/blood-tests/. Accessed September 2011.

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