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Tuberculosis

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Tests: AFB Testing, TB Screening Tests, Adenosine Deaminase
Conditions: HIV Infection and AIDS, Nontuberculous Mycobacteria Infections
Screening: Infants, Children (2-12), Teens (13-18), Young Adults (19-29), Adults (30-49), Adults (50 and Up)

Elsewhere On The Web
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Tuberculosis
American Lung Association: Tuberculosis
World Health Organization: Tuberculosis
FamilyDoctor.org: Tuberculosis
KidsHealth.org: Tuberculosis

Article Sources

NOTE: This article is based on research that utilizes the sources cited here as well as the collective experience of the Lab Tests Online Editorial Review Board. This article is periodically reviewed by the Editorial Board and may be updated as a result of the review. Any new sources cited will be added to the list and distinguished from the original sources used. To access online sources, copy and paste the URL into your browser.

Sources Used in Current Review

Herchline TE, Amorosa JK. (2015 22 October, Updated.) Tuberculosis. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/230802-overview. Accessed on January 2016.

World Health Organization. (2015 October, Updated.) Tuberculosis Fact Sheet. Available online at http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs104/en/. Accessed on January 2016.

U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2015 September, Updated.) Trends in Tuberculosis, 2014. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/tb/publications/factsheets/statistics/tbtrends-2014.pdf. Accessed January 2016.

U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2013 April 16, Updated.) TB in Specific Populations. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/tb/topic/populations/. Accessed January 2016.

Diel R, Loddenkemper R, Meywald-Walter K, Niermann S, Niehaus A. Predictive Value of a Whole Bood IFN-γ Assay for the Development of Active Tuberculosis Disease After Recent Infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. 2008;177:1164-1170.

Diel R, Loddenkemper R, Niermann S, Meywald-Walter K, Nienhaus A. Negative and Positive Predictive Value of a Whole-blood Interferon-γ Release Assay for Developing Active Tuberculosis. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. 2011;183:88-95.

Shah NS, Moodley P, Barbaria P, et al. Rapid Diagnosis of Tuberculosis and Multidrug Resistance by the Microscopic-Observation Drug-Susceptibility Assay. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2011;183:1427–1433.

U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (FDA News Release 2013, 25 July.) FDA Permits Marketing of First U.S. Test Labeled for Simultaneous Detection of Tuberculosis Bacteria and Resistance to the Antibiotic Rifampin. Available online at http://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm362602.htm. Accessed January 2016.

World Health Organization. (2014 October.) Latent Tuberculosis Infection. Available online at http://www.who.int/tb/publications/ltbi_factsheet_161014.pdf?ua=1. Accessed January 2016.

Mayo Clinic Staff. (2014 August 1, Updated.) Tuberculosis. Available online at http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/tuberculosis/basics/treatment/con-20021761?p=1. Accessed on January 2016.

U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2014 February 7, Updated.) Treatment for Latent TB Infection. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/tb/topic/treatment/ltbi.htm. Accessed January 2016.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Factsheet: A New Tool to Diagnose Tuberculosis: The Xpert MTB/RIF Assay. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/tb/publications/factsheets/PDF/XpertMTB-RIFAssayFactSheet_Final.pdf. Accessed February 2016.

Sources Used in Previous Reviews

Thomas, Clayton L., Editor (1997). Taber's Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary. F.A. Davis Company, Philadelphia, PA [18th Edition].

Pagana, Kathleen D. & Pagana, Timothy J. (2001). Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 5th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO.

Heimerdinger, M. (2000). Tuberculosis. ACP-ASIM [On-line session report]. Available online at http://www.acponline.org/vas2000/sessions/tb.htm.

Kirchner, J. (2000 February 1). Do Sputum Smears Positive for AFB Signify Treatment Failure? American Family Physician [On-line journal]. Available online at http://www.aafp.org/afp/20000201/tips/25.html.

Jerant, A. et.al. (2000 May 1). Identification and Management of Tuberculosis. American Family Physician [On-line journal]. Available online at http://www.aafp.org/afp/20000501/2667.html.

Sadovsky, R. (2001 May 15). Making the Diagnosis of Tuberculosis in Children. American Family Physician [On-line journal]. Available online at http://www.aafp.org/afp/20010515/tips/9.html.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2002 August 13, Reviewed). Frequently Asked Questions, Questions and Answers about TB. National Center for HIV, STD and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/nchstp/tb/faqs/qa.htm.

Tuberculosis. The Merck Manual of Medical Information--Home Edition [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.merck.com/pubs/mmanual_home/sec17/181.htm.

Tan, L.J. (2000 June 28, Updated). ATS/CDC Statement Revises Treatment and Testing for Latent TB Infection. American Medical Association [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.ama-assn.org/ama/pub/article/1865-2125.html.

Mazurek, G. & Villarino, M. (2002 December 18 Updated). Guidelines for Using the QuantiFERON®-TB Test for Diagnosing Latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report [On-line report]. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/di51cha1.htm.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2002 March 23, Reviewed). TB and HIV Coinfection. National Center for HIV, STD and TB Prevention, Division of Tuberculosis Elimination [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/nchstp/tb/pubs/TB_HIVcoinfection/default.htm.

Tuberculosis: Ancient Enemy Present Threat, "I must die": Tuberculosis in History. NAIAD [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.niaid.nih.gov/newsroom/focuson/tb02/story.htm.

Tuberculosis (TB). American Lung Association [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.lungusa.org/diseases/lungtb.html.

(2002 January). American Lung Association® Fact Sheet: Tuberculosis. ALA [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.lungusa.org/diseases/tbfac.html.

(2002 January). American Lung Association® Fact Sheet: Tuberculosis Skin Test. ALA [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.lungusa.org/diseases/tbskinfac.html.

(2002 January). American Lung Association® Fact Sheet: Pediatric Tuberculosis. ALA [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.lungusa.org/diseases/pedtbfac.html.

NIAID (1999 December 1, Updated). The Global Burden of Tuberculosis. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health [On-line publication]. Available online at http://www.niaid.nih.gov/publications/blueprint/page2.htm.

Tuberculin skin test. Hendrick Health System AccessMed [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.hendrickhealth.org/healthy/00069330.html.

Tuberculosis. Hendrick Health System AccessMed [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.hendrickhealth.org/healthy/00069340.html.

Mycobacteriology, Introduction to the Genus Mycobacteria. Microbiology Public Health for Northern Alberta, Bugs on the Web [On-line information]. Available online at http://www2.provlab.ab.ca/bugs/mycob/mbintro.htm.

Mycobacteriology, Acid-Fast Staining Procedures for Mycobacteria. Microbiology Public Health for Northern Alberta, Bugs on the Web [On-line information]. Available online at http://www2.provlab.ab.ca/bugs/mycob/afb_stain/afb_tutorial.htm.

Hall, G. (2001). Practical Microbiology, Update on Broth Media for the Isolation of Mycobacterium Species. Medscape from Infect Med 18(1):28-30, 2001 [On-line journal]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/410131.

Tuberculin Purified Protein Derivative (Mantoux) Tubersol. Aventis Pasteur Inc. (Swiftwater, PA) [Package Insert].

(1996 October 28, Rev L). AccuProbe, Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Complex Culture Identification Test. Gen-Probe [Package Insert]. Available online at http://www.gen-probe.com/mtd.html.

(2006 November 3). Notice to Readers: Revised Definition of Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis. CDC MMWR 55(43);1176 [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5543a4.htm. Accessed December 10, 2006.

(2006 April). Tuberculosis: General Information. National Center for HIV, STD, and TB Prevention, Division of Tuberculosis Elimination Fact Sheet [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/nchstp/tb/pubs/tbfactsheets/250010.htm. Accessed December 10, 2006.

(2006 March, Revised). Tuberculosis. World Health Organization [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs104/en/index.html. Accessed December 10, 2006.

(2006 March). Tuberculosis. NIAID Fact Sheet [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.niaid.nih.gov/factsheets/tb.htm. Accessed December 10, 2006.

(2006 March 23). U.S. Tuberculosis cases at an all-time low in 2005, but drug resistance increasing. CDC Media Relations [On-line press release]. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/od/oc/media/pressrel/fs060323.htm. Accessed December 10, 2006.

(2006 March). QuantiFERON-TB Gold Test. National Center for HIV, STD, and TB Prevention, Division of Tuberculosis Elimination Fact Sheet [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/nchstp/tb/pubs/tbfactsheets/250103.htm. Accessed December 10, 2006.

(2006 April). Diagnosis of Tuberculosis Disease. National Center for HIV, STD, and TB Prevention, Division of Tuberculosis Elimination Fact Sheet [On-line information]. Available onlien at http://www.cdc.gov/nchstp/tb/pubs/tbfactsheets/250102.htm. Accessed December 10, 2006.

Palomino, J. (2006 April 21). Newer Diagnostics for Tuberculosis and Multi-Drug Resistant Tuberculosis. Medscape from Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine 12(3):172-178 [On-line journal]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/529589.

Pagana, Kathleen D. & Pagana, Timothy J. (© 2007). Mosby’s Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 8th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO. Pp 955-957.

Moore, DAJ et al. Microscopic-Observation Drug-Susceptibility Assay for the Diagnosis of TB. New England Journal of Medicine 2006;355:1539-1550.

Forbes BA, Sahm DF, Weissfeld AS, Bailey & Scott's Diagnostic Microbiology 12th Edition: Mosby Elsevier, St. Louis, MO; 2007, Pp 478-508.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) fact sheets available online through http://www.cdc.gov:

Diagnosis of Tuberculous Disease: http://www.cdc.gov/tb/publications/factsheets/testing/diagnosis.htm 

Trends in Tuberculosis, 2009: http://www.cdc.gov/tb/publications/factsheets/statistics/TBTrends.htm

Interferon Gamma Release assays: http://www.cdc.gov/tb/publications/factsheets/testing/IGRA.htm

Tuberculin Skin Test:  http://www.cdc.gov/tb/publications/factsheets/testing/skintesting.htm 

Treatment of Latent TB: http://www.cdc.gov/tb/publications/factsheets/treatment/treatmentLTBI.htm Treatment of Drug-Susceptible Tuberculosis Disease in Persons Not Infected with HIV: http://www.cdc.gov/tb/publications/factsheets/treatment/treatmentHIVnegative.htm

Treatment of Drug-Susceptible Tuberculosis Disease in HIV-Infected Persons: http://www.cdc.gov/tb/publications/factsheets/treatment/treatmentHIVpositive.htm 

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Updated Guidelines for the use of Nucleic Acid Amplification Tests in the Diagnosis of Tuberculosis. MMWR January 16, 2009 / 58(01); 7-10.  Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5801a3.htm?s_cid=mm5801a3_e. Accessed January 2011.

Herchline T (December 17, 2010). Tuberculosis, eMedicine article. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/230802-overview. Accessed January 2011.

(Jan. 29, 2009) Mayo Clinic. Tuberculosis. Available online at http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/tuberculosis/DS00372. Accessed January 2011.

(November 12, 2010) National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. Tuberculosis (TB). Available online at http://www.niaid.nih.gov/topics/tuberculosis/Pages/default.aspx. Accessed January 2011.

(November 2010) World Health Organization. Tuberculosis Fact Sheet. Available online at http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs104/en/index.html. Accessed January 2011.

Boehme C, et. al. Rapid Molecular Detection of Tuberculosis and Rifampin Resistance. N Engl J Med 2010; 363:1005-1015. Available online at http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa0907847. Accessed January 2011.

Minion J, Leung E, Menzies D, Pai M. Microscopic-observation drug susceptibility and thin layer agar assays for the detection of drug resistant tuberculosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Inf Dis, 2010 Oct;10(10):688-98. Epub 2010 Aug 31. Available online at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20813587. Accessed January 2011.

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