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Urinary Tract Infection

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Tests: Urinalysis, Urine Culture, Blood Culture, Chlamydia Testing, Gonorrhea Testing, Kidney Stone Analysis, Kidney Stone Risk Panel, Susceptibility Testing
Conditions: Kidney Disease

On The Web
FamilyDoctor.org: Urinary Tract Infections
KidsHealth.org: Urinary Tract Infections
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK): Urinary Tract Infections in Adults
NIDDK: Your Urinary System and How it Works
Urology Care Foundation: Urinary Tract Infections in Adults

Article Sources

NOTE: This article is based on research that utilizes the sources cited here as well as the collective experience of the Lab Tests Online Editorial Review Board. This article is periodically reviewed by the Editorial Board and may be updated as a result of the review. Any new sources cited will be added to the list and distinguished from the original sources used. To access online sources, copy and paste the URL into your browser.

Sources Used in Current Review

Urology Care Foundation. Urinary Tract Infection in Adults. Available online at http://www.urologyhealth.org/urologic-conditions/urinary-tract-infections-in-adults. Accessed on March 25, 2015.

National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. (May 2012 updated.) Urinary Tract Infection in Adults. Available online at http://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/health-topics/urologic-disease/urinary-tract-infections-in-adults/Pages/facts.aspx. Accessed on March 25, 2016.

Balentine JR. Urinary Tract Infections. Available online at http://www.medicinenet.com/urinary_tract_infection/article.htm. Accessed on March 25, 2016.

Mayo Clinic Foundation. (July 23, 2015 updated.) Urinary Tract Infection (UTI). Available online at http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/urinary-tract-infection/basics/definition/con-20037892. Accessed on March 25, 2016.

Kodner CM, Thomas Gupton EK. Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections in Women: Diagnosis and Management. American Family Physician. 2010; 82(6):638-643.

Scholes D, Hooten TM, Roberts PL, et al. Risk Factors for Recurrent Urinary Tract Infection in Young Women. The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2000;182:1177–1182.

Hooten TM. Recurrent Urinary Tract Infection in Women. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents. 2001;17(4):259-268.

Texas A&M University Newswise. (Feb 9, 2016.) Does Cranberry Juice Treat a UTI? Not the Kind You Buy at Grocery Stores, At Least. Available online at http://www.newswise.com/articles/view/647651?print-article. Accessed on March 28, 2016.

Cayley WE. Are Cranberry Products Effective for the Prevention of Urinary Tract Infections? American Family Physician. 2013;88(11):745-746.

Cleveland Clinic Urinary & Kidney Team. (October 21, 2015.) Can Cranberry Juice Stop Your UTI? Available online at https://health.clevelandclinic.org/2015/10/can-cranberry-juice-stop-uti/. Accessed March 28, 2016.

Foxman B, Cronenwet A, Spino C, et al. Cranberry Juice Capsules and Urinary Tract Infection After Surgery: Results of a Randomized Trial. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2015;213(2):194.e1-8. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2015.04.003. Epub 2015 Apr 13.

Zeldovich, L. Unlocking the Mechanics of Urinary Tract Infection. The Atlantic. March 23, 2016. Available online at http://www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2016/03/treating-urinary-tract-infection/475014/. Accessed March 28, 2016.

Sources Used in Previous Reviews

Thomas, Clayton L., Editor (1997). Taber's Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary. F.A. Davis Company, Philadelphia, PA [18th Edition].

Pagana, Kathleen D. & Pagana, Timothy J. (2001). Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 5th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO.

(2002). Urethritis. Hendrick Health System, AccessMed Health Information Library [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.ehendrick.org/healthy/001424.htm.

(2002 July). Urinary Tract Infections in Adults. NIDDK, NIH Publication No. 02-2097 [On-line information]. Available online at http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov/kudiseases/pubs/utiadult/index.htm.

(2002 March). Your Urinary System and How it Works. NIDDK, NIH Publication No. 02-3195 [On-line information]. Available online at http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov/kudiseases/pubs/yoururinary/index.htm.

(2001 April). Cystoscopy and Ureteroscopy. NIDDK, NIH Publication No. 01-4800 [On-line information]. Available online at http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov/kudiseases/pubs/cystoscopy/index.htm.

(2002 August 02). Urinary tract infection. MayoClinic.com [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.mayoclinic.com/invoke.cfm?id=DS00286.

(2003 April). Vesicoureteral Reflux. NIDDK, NIH Publication No. 03-4555 [On-line information]. Available online at http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov/kudiseases/pubs/vesicoureteralreflux/index.htm.

(2003 August 05, Updated). Urinary Tract Infections. ACOG, Medical Library [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.medem.com/MedLB/article_detaillb.cfm?article_ID=ZZZ1LJ5770D&sub_cat=2008.

(2001). Urinary Tract Infections in Children. Familydoctor.org [On-line information]. Available online at http://familydoctor.org/handouts/272.html.

(2000). Urinary Tract Infections During Pregnancy. Familydoctor.org [On-line information]. Available online at http://familydoctor.org/handouts/497.html.

Saberi, P. (2002 February 4, Updated). Urinary tract infection – chronic or recurrent. MedlinePlus Health Information Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000505.htm.

Kang, Y. (2002, May 25, Updated). Catheter-associated UTI. MedlinePlus Health Information Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000483.htm.

Parsons, C. (2002, July 30, Updated). Kidney infection (pyelonephritis). MedlinePlus Health Information Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000522.htm.

Angelo, S. (2002, October 31, Updated). Recurrent cystitis. MedlinePlus Health Information Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000515.htm.

Greene, A. (2002, March 3, Updated). Urinary tract infection (cystitis). MedlinePlus Health Information Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000521.htm.

Pagana, K. D. & Pagana, T. J. (© 2007). Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 8th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO. Pp 981-983.

Wu, A. (© 2006). Tietz Clinical Guide to Laboratory Tests, 4th Edition: Saunders Elsevier, St. Louis, MO. Pp 1621-1622.

Forbes, B. et. al. (© 2007). Bailey & Scott's Diagnostic Microbiology, 12th Edition: Mosby Elsevier Press, St. Louis, MO. Pp 842-855.

(Updated 2008 May 1). Urinary Tract Infection, Frequently Asked Questions. Womenshealth.gov [On-line information]. Available online at http://womenshealth.gov/faq/urinary-tract-infection.cfm. Accessed April 2009.

(© 2008). Screening for Asymptomatic Bacteriuria in Adults: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendations. Annals of Internal Medicine, Summaries for Patients [On-line information]. PDF available for download at http://www.annals.org/cgi/reprint/149/1/I-37.pdf. Accessed April 2009.

(Reviewed 2002 December). Urinary Tract Infections in Adults. American Urological Association Foundation, UrologyHealth.org [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.urologyhealth.org/search/index.cfm?topic=147&search=UTI&searchtype=and. Accessed April 2009.

(Reviewed 2007 December). Urinary Tract Infections in Children. American Urological Association Foundation, UrologyHealth.org [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.urologyhealth.org/pediatric/index.cfm?cat=07&topic=146. Accessed April 2009.

Rahn, D. (2008 November 12). Urinary Tract Infections: Contemporary Management. Medscape from Urol Nurs. 2008;28(5):333-341 [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/583060. Accessed April 2009.

Stokowski, L. (2009 February 3). Preventing Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections. Medscape Nurses [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/587464. Accessed April 2009.

Cunha, B. et. al. (2008 June 12). Urinary Tract Infection, Females. Emedicine [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/233101-overview. Accessed April 2009.

Cunha, B. (2008 June 25). Urinary Tract Infection, Males. Emedicine [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/231574-overview. Accessed April 2009.

(2012 May 24). Urinary Tract Infections in Adults. National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse, NIDDK. [On-line information]. Available online at http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov/KUDiseases/pubs/utiadult/index.aspx. Accessed October 2012.

Mayo Clinic Staff (2012 August 29).Urinary tract infection (UTI). Mayo Clinic [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/urinary-tract-infection/DS00286. Accessed October 2012.

Brusch, J. (Updated 2011 August 9). Pathophysiology of Complicated Urinary Tract Infections. Medscape Reference [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/2039975-overview. Accessed October 2012.

Brusch, J. (Updated 2012 February 1). Cystitis in Females. Medscape Reference [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/233101-overview. Accessed October 2012.

Brusch, J. (Updated 2012 February 23). Prevention of Urinary Tract Infections. Medscape Reference [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/2040239-overview. Accessed October 2012.

Tolan, R. (Updated 2011 May 12). Fever Without a Focus. Medscape Reference [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/970788-overview#showall. Accessed October 2012.

Vega, C. (2012 September 27). Overtreating UTIs: Walk Softly and Carry a Dipstick, A Best Evidence Review. Medscape Today News [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/771495. Accessed October 2012.

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