Sources Used in Current Review
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. (Sept 2014 updated.) Prostate Enlargement (Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia). Available online at https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/urologic-diseases/prostate-problems/prostate-enlargement-benign-prostatic-hyperplasia. Accessed July 27, 2017.
Deters LA. (6 Nov 2016 updated.) Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/437359-overview?pa=pjcpJFziVtidyc3mPZw0nI0kS%2BN6TaVIM%2FiDWCbEIpwI33GP4LRnoLbt2MSIkCyikMxRGSC7BjbG0fgXxUgsJXf7Bj2Gvk6BKC47oRZ1BB8%3D#a7. Accessed July 27, 2017.
Barry MJ, Fowler FJ, O’Leary MP, et al. The American Urological Association Symptom Index for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia. The Journal of Urology. 2017; 197: S189-S197. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.juro.2016.10.071 American Urological Association. Management of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia. Available online at https://www.auanet.org/guidelines/benign-prostatic-hyperplasia-(2010-reviewed-and-validity-confirmed-2014). Accessed July 27, 2017.
Mayo Clinic. (13 Nov. 2014 updated.) Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH). Available online at http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/benign-prostatic-hyperplasia/basics/definition/con-20030812. Accessed July 27, 2017.
Urology Care Foundation. Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH). Available online at http://www.urologyhealth.org/urologic-conditions/benign-prostatic-hyperplasia-(bph). Accessed July 27, 2017.
Cooperberg MR, Presti JC, Jr, Shinohara K, Carroll PR. Chapter 23. Neoplasms of the Prostate Gland. In: McAninch JW, Lue TF. eds. Smith and Tanagho's General Urology, 18e New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2013.
Scher HI, Eastham JA. Benign and Malignant Diseases of the Prostate. In: Kasper D, Fauci A, Hauser S, Longo D, Jameson J, Loscalzo J. eds. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 19e New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2014.
Miteshkumar RT , Bhooraram AC. Digital rectal examination, transrectal ultrasound, and prostate specific antigen as triple assessment diagnostic tool for benign enlargement of prostate. Natl J Med Research 2015; 5(3):244-248.
Sources Used in Previous Reviews
National Association for Continence. Enlarged Prostate (Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia). Available online at http://www.nafc.org/index.php?page=enlarged-prostate. Updated November 8, 2012. Accessed March 2013.
National Cancer Institute. General Information about Prostate Cancer. Available online at http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/screening/prostate/Patient/page3. Last updated November 2, 2012. Accessed March 2013.
National Cancer Institute. Understanding Prostate Changes: A Health Guide for Men. Types of Tests. Available online at http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/screening/understanding-prostate-changes/page5. Accessed March 2013.
Medline Plus Medical Encyclopedia. Enlarged Prostate. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000381.htm. Updated September 19, 2011. Accessed March 2013.
Urology Care Foundation. Diagnosis of BPH. Available online at http://www.urologyhealth.org/urology/index.cfm?article=59. Accessed March 2013.
Thomas, Clayton L., Editor (1997). Taber's Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary. F.A. Davis Company, Philadelphia, PA [18th Edition].
Pagana, Kathleen D. & Pagana, Timothy J. (2001). Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 5th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO.
Ballentine Carter, H., et. al. (2204 September 22). Report to the Nation on Prostate Cancer 2004, Chapter 1: Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis of Prostate Cancer CME. Medscape Today, Clinical Update [On-line CME]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewprogram/3440?src=sidesearch.
(2004 August 17, Reviewed). The Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Test: Questions and Answers. National Cancer Institute, Cancer Facts [On-line information]. Available online at http://cis.nci.nih.gov/fact/5_29.htm.
(© 1995 – 2004). Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia. Merck Manual [On-line information]. Available online through http://www.merck.com.
(2003 March, Reviewed). Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH). Familydoctor.org [[On-line information]. Available online at http://familydoctor.org/148.xml.
(2003 August, Reviewed). Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH), A Patient's Guide. American Urological Association [On-line information]. Available online through http://www.urologyhealth.org.
Urologyhealth.org: Diagnosis of BPH. Available online at http://www.urologyhealth.org/search/index.cfm?topic=173&search=BPH&searchtype=and. Reaccessed July 16, 2009.