NOTE: This article is based on research that utilizes the sources cited here as well as the collective experience of the Lab Tests Online Editorial Review Board. This article is periodically reviewed by the Editorial Board and may be updated as a result of the review. Any new sources cited will be added to the list and distinguished from the original sources used.
Sources Used in Current Review
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. (Sept 2014 updated.) Prostate Enlargement (Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia). Available online at https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/urologic-diseases/prostate-problems/prostate-enlargement-benign-prostatic-hyperplasia. Accessed July 27, 2017.
Deters LA. (6 Nov 2016 updated.) Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/437359-overview?pa=pjcpJFziVtidyc3mPZw0nI0kS%2BN6TaVIM%2FiDWCbEIpwI33GP4LRnoLbt2MSIkCyikMxRGSC7BjbG0fgXxUgsJXf7Bj2Gvk6BKC47oRZ1BB8%3D#a7. Accessed July 27, 2017.
Barry MJ, Fowler FJ, O’Leary MP, et al. The American Urological Association Symptom Index for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia. The Journal of Urology. 2017; 197: S189-S197. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.juro.2016.10.071 American Urological Association. Management of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia. Available online at https://www.auanet.org/guidelines/benign-prostatic-hyperplasia-(2010-reviewed-and-validity-confirmed-2014). Accessed July 27, 2017.
Mayo Clinic. (13 Nov. 2014 updated.) Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH). Available online at http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/benign-prostatic-hyperplasia/basics/definition/con-20030812. Accessed July 27, 2017.
Urology Care Foundation. Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH). Available online at http://www.urologyhealth.org/urologic-conditions/benign-prostatic-hyperplasia-(bph). Accessed July 27, 2017.
Cooperberg MR, Presti JC, Jr, Shinohara K, Carroll PR. Chapter 23. Neoplasms of the Prostate Gland. In: McAninch JW, Lue TF. eds. Smith and Tanagho's General Urology, 18e New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2013.
Scher HI, Eastham JA. Benign and Malignant Diseases of the Prostate. In: Kasper D, Fauci A, Hauser S, Longo D, Jameson J, Loscalzo J. eds. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 19e New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2014.
Miteshkumar RT , Bhooraram AC. Digital rectal examination, transrectal ultrasound, and prostate specific antigen as triple assessment diagnostic tool for benign enlargement of prostate. Natl J Med Research 2015; 5(3):244-248.
Sources Used in Previous Reviews
National Association for Continence. Enlarged Prostate (Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia). Available online at http://www.nafc.org/index.php?page=enlarged-prostate through http://www.nafc.org. Updated November 8, 2012. Accessed March 2013.
National Cancer Institute. General Information about Prostate Cancer. Available online at http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/screening/prostate/Patient/page3 throughhttp://www.cancer.gov. Last updated November 2, 2012. Accessed March 2013.
National Cancer Institute. Understanding Prostate Changes: A Health Guide for Men. Types of Tests. Available online at http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/screening/understanding-prostate-changes/page5 through http://www.cancer.gov. Accessed March 2013.
Medline Plus Medical Encyclopedia. Enlarged Prostate. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000381.htm. Updated September 19, 2011. Accessed March 2013.
Urology Care Foundation. Diagnosis of BPH. Available online at http://www.urologyhealth.org/urology/index.cfm?article=59 through http://www.urologyhealth.org. Accessed March 2013.
Thomas, Clayton L., Editor (1997). Taber's Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary. F.A. Davis Company, Philadelphia, PA [18th Edition].
Pagana, Kathleen D. & Pagana, Timothy J. (2001). Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 5th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO.
Ballentine Carter, H., et. al. (2204 September 22). Report to the Nation on Prostate Cancer 2004, Chapter 1: Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis of Prostate Cancer CME. Medscape Today, Clinical Update [On-line CME]. Available online at http://www.medscape.com/viewprogram/3440?src=sidesearch through http://www.medscape.com.
(2004 August 17, Reviewed). The Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Test: Questions and Answers. National Cancer Institute, Cancer Facts [On-line information]. Available online at http://cis.nci.nih.gov/fact/5_29.htm through http://cis.nci.nih.gov.
(© 1995 – 2004). Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia. Merck Manual [On-line information]. Available online through http://www.merck.com.
(2003 March, Reviewed). Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH). Familydoctor.org [[On-line information]. Available online at http://familydoctor.org/148.xml through http://familydoctor.org.
(2003 August, Reviewed). Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH), A Patient's Guide. American Urological Association [On-line information]. Available online through http://www.urologyhealth.org.
Urologyhealth.org: Diagnosis of BPH. Available online at http://www.urologyhealth.org/search/index.cfm?topic=173&search=BPH&searchtype=and through http://www.urologyhealth.org. Reaccessed July 16, 2009.