Also Known As
Amy
This article was last reviewed on
This article waslast modified on January 29, 2019.
At a Glance
Why Get Tested?

Primarily to diagnose and monitor acute pancreatitis; also sometimes to diagnose and monitor chronic pancreatitis or other pancreatic diseases

When To Get Tested?

When you have symptoms of a pancreatic disorder, such as severe abdominal pain, fever, loss of appetite, or nausea

Sample Required?

A blood sample is obtained by inserting a needle into a vein in the arm. Sometimes a random urine sample, a 24-hour urine sample, or peritoneal fluid is collected.

Test Preparation Needed?

For both a blood test and a urine sample, you should avoid alcohol for 24 hours before the test and for the blood test, you may be instructed not eat or drink anything other than water for two hours before blood is drawn. Certain medications can affect amylase levels, so discuss medications with your doctor before testing is done.

You may be able to find your test results on your laboratory's website or patient portal. However, you are currently at Lab Tests Online. You may have been directed here by your lab's website in order to provide you with background information about the test(s) you had performed. You will need to return to your lab's website or portal, or contact your healthcare practitioner in order to obtain your test results.

Lab Tests Online is an award-winning patient education website offering information on laboratory tests. The content on the site, which has been reviewed by laboratory scientists and other medical professionals, provides general explanations of what results might mean for each test listed on the site, such as what a high or low value might suggest to your healthcare practitioner about your health or medical condition.

The reference ranges for your tests can be found on your laboratory report. They are typically found to the right of your results.

If you do not have your lab report, consult your healthcare provider or the laboratory that performed the test(s) to obtain the reference range.

Laboratory test results are not meaningful by themselves. Their meaning comes from comparison to reference ranges. Reference ranges are the values expected for a healthy person. They are sometimes called "normal" values. By comparing your test results with reference values, you and your healthcare provider can see if any of your test results fall outside the range of expected values. Values that are outside expected ranges can provide clues to help identify possible conditions or diseases.

While accuracy of laboratory testing has significantly evolved over the past few decades, some lab-to-lab variability can occur due to differences in testing equipment, chemical reagents, and techniques. This is a reason why so few reference ranges are provided on this site. It is important to know that you must use the range supplied by the laboratory that performed your test to evaluate whether your results are "within normal limits."

For more information, please read the article Reference Ranges and What They Mean.

What is being tested?

Amylase is an enzyme produced primarily by the pancreas and the salivary glands to help digest carbohydrates. This test measures the amount of amylase in the blood or urine or sometimes in peritoneal fluid, which is fluid found between the membranes that cover the abdominal cavity and the outside of abdominal organs.

The pancreas is a narrow, flat organ about six inches long located deep within the abdominal cavity, below the liver and between the stomach and the spine. Its head section connects to the duodenum, the first part of the small intestine. Inside the pancreas, small ducts (tubes) feed digestive enzymes produced by the pancreas into the pancreatic duct. The pancreas releases amylase through the pancreatic duct into the first part of the small intestine, where it helps break down dietary carbohydrates.

Amylase is usually present in the blood and urine in small quantities. When cells in the pancreas are injured, increased amounts of amylase are released into the blood. This also increases concentrations of amylase in the urine because amylase is eliminated from the blood through the urine. Increased amylase levels can occur with pancreatitis or when the pancreatic duct is blocked by a gallstone or, in rare cases, with a pancreatic tumor.

Accordion Title
Common Questions
  • How is the test used?

    The blood amylase test is used to help diagnose and monitor acute pancreatitis. It may also be used to diagnose and monitor chronic pancreatitis and other disorders that may involve the pancreas.

    The blood amylase test may be used along with a lipase test to detect pancreatic diseases. While the amylase test is sensitive for pancreatic diseases, it is not specific. That means an elevated amylase level may indicate a problem, but the cause may not be related to the pancreas. The lipase test, on the other hand, is more specific than amylase for diseases of the pancreas, particularly for acute pancreatitis and for acute alcoholic pancreatitis. An elevated lipase usually indicates a problem with the pancreas. Evaluating the results of the two tests together helps to diagnose or rule out pancreatitis and other conditions.

    A urine amylase test may also be used to detect pancreatic diseases. Typically, its level will mirror blood amylase concentrations, but both the rise and fall will occur later. Sometimes a urine creatinine level may be ordered along with the urine amylase. The ratio of amylase to creatinine can be calculated and used to assess kidney function. Kidney dysfunction can result in a slower rate of amylase clearance.

    In certain cases, for example when there is an accumulation of fluid in the abdomen (ascites), an amylase test may be performed on peritoneal fluid to help make a diagnosis of pancreatitis.

    Amylase tests are sometimes used to monitor treatment of pancreatic cancer and after the removal of gallstones that have caused gallbladder attacks.

  • When is it ordered?

    A blood amylase test may be ordered when a person has signs or symptoms of a pancreatic disorder, such as:

    • Severe upper abdominal pain that radiates to the back or feels worse after eating
    • Fever
    • Loss of appetite
    • Nausea, vomiting
    • Yellowing of the eyes or skin (jaundice)
    • Rapid pulse
    • Loose, fatty, foul-smelling stools (steatorrhea)

    A urine amylase test may be ordered along with or following a blood amylase test. One or both may also be ordered periodically when a healthcare practitioner wants to monitor a person to evaluate the effectiveness of treatment and to determine whether amylase levels are increasing or decreasing over time.

  • What does the test result mean?

    A high amylase level in the blood may indicate the presence of a condition affecting the pancreas.

    In acute pancreatitis, amylase in the blood often increases to 4 to 6 times higher than the highest reference value, sometimes called the upper limit of normal. The increase occurs within 4 to 8 hours of injury to the pancreas and generally remains elevated until the cause is successfully treated. The amylase values will then return to normal in a few days.

    Amylase and lipase results may be interpreted together. In acute pancreatitis, lipase levels usually rise in about the same time as blood amylase levels, about 3-6 hours, but lipase levels will remain elevated longer than amylase levels. Lipase testing is thought to be more reliable than amylase testing for the initial diagnosis of acute pancreatitis and is also more sensitive to detecting acute pancreatitis caused by acute alcoholic pancreatitis.

    In chronic pancreatitis, amylase levels initially will be moderately elevated but often decrease over time with progressive pancreas damage. In this case, levels returning to normal may not mean that the source of damage has been resolved. The magnitude of increase in amylase level does not indicate severity of pancreatic disease.

    Amylase levels may also be significantly increased in people with pancreatic duct obstruction and pancreatic cancers.

    In general, urine amylase levels rise in proportion to blood amylase levels and will stay elevated for several days after blood levels have returned to normal.

    An increased level of amylase in peritoneal fluid can occur in acute pancreatitis but may also occur in other abdominal disorders, such as obstructed intestine or decreased blood flow to the intestines (infarct).

    A low amylase level in blood and urine in a person with pancreatitis symptoms may indicate permanent damage to the amylase-producing cells in the pancreas. Decreased levels can also be due to kidney disease and pre-eclampsia.

    Increased blood amylase levels with normal to low urine amylase levels may indicate the presence of a macroamylase, a benign complex of amylase and other proteins that accumulates in the blood.

    Since the salivary glands also produce amylase, conditions such as mumps and obstructed salivary glands can also cause increased blood levels of amylase.

  • Is there anything else I should know?

    Chronic pancreatitis is often associated with alcoholism. It may also be caused by trauma or pancreatic duct obstruction or may be seen in association with genetic abnormalities such as cystic fibrosis.

    In addition to the pancreas and salivary glands, amylase is produced in other parts of the body, such as the small intestine, ovaries, fallopian tubes and liver. However, most laboratory tests simply measure total amylase in the blood based on the fact that most of the amylase in blood, urine and fluids comes from the pancreas.

  • Do elevated amylase levels always mean that I have a pancreatic condition?

    No. Amylase levels may also be significantly increased in people with gallbladder attacks. Urine and blood amylase levels may be moderately elevated with a variety of other conditions, such as ovarian cancer, lung cancer, tubal pregnancy, acute appendicitis, diabetic ketoacidosis, mumps, intestinal obstruction, or perforated ulcer, but amylase tests are not generally used to diagnose or monitor these disorders.

  • Can medications that I am taking affect the amylase level?

    Yes. Some drugs that may cause amylase to rise include aspirin, diuretics, oral contraceptives, corticosteroids, indomethacin, ethyl alcohol, and opiates (such as codeine and morphine).

  • What is the difference between P-amylase and S-amylase?

    Amylase is an enzyme that has several different forms called isoenzymes. Different tissues make different forms. P-amylase refers to the type of amylase made mainly in the pancreas. S-amylase refers to the type of amylase made mainly by the salivary glands. P-amylase in the blood increases when the pancreas is inflamed or damaged. S-amylase in the blood increases when the salivary gland is inflamed or damaged. Measuring pancreatic amylase, or P-amylase, may be useful in determining if an increase in a total amylase level is due to acute pancreatitis.

View Sources

Sources Used in Current Review

(December 10, 2014) Amylase. Medscape. Available online at https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/2054386-overview. Accessed on 6/12/18.

(February 13, 2017) Amylase Test. UCSF Health. Available online at https://www.ucsfhealth.org/tests/003464.html. Accessed 6/12/18.

Pancreatitis. Mayo Clinic. Available online at https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/pancreatitis/symptoms-causes/syc-20360227. Accessed on 6/12/18.

(May 26, 2018) Amylase Test. DoveMed. Available online at https://www.dovemed.com/common-procedures/procedures-laboratory/amylase-test. Accessed 6/12/18.

(August 3, 2015) Blood Tests for Acute Pancreatitis. Australian Prescriber. Available online at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4653980. Accessed on 6/12/18.

Sources Used in Previous Reviews

Pagana, Kathleen D. & Pagana, Timothy J. (© 2007). Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 8th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO. Pp 60-62.

Thomas, Clayton L., Editor (1997). Taber's Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary. F.A. Davis Company, Philadelphia, PA [18th Edition]. Pg 87.

Stone, C. (2005 February 14, Updated). Amylase Test. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003464.htm.

Kolatkar, N. (2005 May 17, Updated). Amylase - urine. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003607.htm.

(2004 February). Pancreatitis. National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse [On-line information]. Available online at http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/pancreatitis/.

Dugdale, D. (Updated 2009 January 28). Amylase – blood. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003464.htm. Accessed May 2010.

Mathew, A. et. al. (Updated 2009 November 11). Hyperamylasemia. eMedicine [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/186389-overview. Accessed May 2010.

Gardner, T. and Berk, B. (Updated 2009 December 29). Pancreatitis, Acute. eMedicine [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/181364-overview. Accessed May 2010.

Obideen, K. and Wehbi, M. (Updated 2009 December 22). Pancreatitis, Chronic. eMedicine [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/181554-overview. Accessed May 2010.

Khoury, G. and Deeba, S. (Updated 2009 January 26). Pancreatitis. eMedicine [On-line information]. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/775867-overview. Accessed May 2010.

Lew, M. and Lewandrowski, K. (2010 March). Q&A. CAP Today [On-line information]. Available online through http://www.cap.org. Accessed May 2010.

Pagana, K. D. & Pagana, T. J. (© 2007). Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 8th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO. Pp 60-62.

Clarke, W. and Dufour, D. R., Editors (© 2006). Contemporary Practice in Clinical Chemistry: AACC Press, Washington, DC. Pp 281-287.

Wu, A. (© 2006). Tietz Clinical Guide to Laboratory Tests, 4th Edition: Saunders Elsevier, St. Louis, MO. Pp 100-107.

Kasper DL, Braunwald E, Fauci AS, Hauser SL, Longo DL, Jameson JL eds, (2005). Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 16th Edition, McGraw Hill Pp 1891-1898.

Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnostics. Burtis CA, Ashwood ER, Bruns DE, eds. St. Louis: Elsevier Saunders; 2006 Pg 616.

Test ID: RAMSU Amylase, Random, Urine. Mayo Clinic. Available online at http://www.mayomedicallaboratories.com/test-catalog/Clinical+and+Interpretive/89879. Accessed April 2014.

Amylase – Blood. (Updated Feb. 4, 2011.) MedlinePlus. Available online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003464.htm. Accessed April 2014.

Devaraj, Sridevi. (Updated Oct. 10, 2012.) Medscape. Available online at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/2054386-overview. Accessed April 2014.

Test ID: LPS Lipase, Serum. Mayo Clinic. Available online at http://www.mayomedicallaboratories.com/test-catalog/Clinical+and+Interpretive/8328. Accessed April 2014.

Amylase/Creatinine Clearance Ratio Measurement. Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC). Available online at http://www.muschealth.com/lab/content.aspx?id=150324. Accessed April 2014.

Test ID: AMBF Amylase, Body Fluid. Mayo Clinic. Available online at http://www.mayomedicallaboratories.com/test-catalog/Clinical+and+Interpretive/8371. Accessed April 2014.

Matull, W. R., et. al. (April 2006.) Biochemical Markers of Acute Pancreatitis. National Center for Biotechnology Information. Available online at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1860356/. Accessed April 2014.

Test: 8352 Amylase, Total, Serum. Mayo Clinic. Available online at http://www.mayomedicallaboratories.com/interpretive-guide/?alpha=A&unit_code=8352. Accessed April 2014.

Ask a Laboratory Scientist

This form enables you to ask specific questions about lab tests. Your questions will be answered by a laboratory scientist as part of a voluntary service provided by one of our partners, American Society for Clinical Laboratory Science. Please allow 2-3 business days for an email response from one of the volunteers. 

Country
Disclaimer
Thank you for using the Consumer Information Response Service ("the Service") to inquire about the meaning of your lab test results.  The Service is provided free of charge by the American Society for Clinical Laboratory Science, which is one of many laboratory organizations that supports Lab Tests Online.
Please note that information provided through this free Service is not intended to be medical advice and should not be relied on as such. Although the laboratory provides the largest single source of objective, scientific data on patient status, it is only one part of a complex biological picture of health or disease. As professional clinical laboratory scientists, our goal is to assist you in understanding the purpose of laboratory tests and the general meaning of your laboratory results. It is important that you communicate with your physician so that together you can integrate the pertinent information, such as age, ethnicity, health history, signs and symptoms, laboratory and other procedures (radiology, endoscopy, etc.), to determine your health status. The information provided through this Service is not intended to substitute for such consultations with your physician nor specific medical advice to your health condition.
By submitting your question to this Service, you agree to waive, release, and hold harmless the American Society for Clinical Laboratory Science and its affiliates or their past or present officers, directors, employees, agents, and Service volunteers (collectively referred to as "ASCLS") and the American Association  for Clinical Chemistry and its affiliates or their past or present officers, directors, employees, agents, and Service volunteers (collectively referred to as "AACC") from any legal claims, rights, or causes of action you may have in connection with the responses provided to the questions that you submit to the Service.
AACC, ASCLS and its Service volunteers disclaim any liability arising out of your use of this Service or for any adverse outcome from your use of the information provided by this Service for any reason, including but not limited to any misunderstanding or misinterpretation of the information provided through this Service.